1. Post WWII Women
a. Pressure to conform to pre-war gender patterns
b. By end of decade nearly 30.5% women work outside of home (part or full time)
c. Reluctant to relinquish independence ; but society expected them to stay at home
d. Baby Boomers made decision to stay at home easier- need to raise children!
e. Suburbia feeds into housewife stereotype- women decorate new homes, socialize w/ other moms, take kids to and from activities
a. Affordable due to GI Bill (gov. back loans)
i. Built quick and cheap
ii. Uniform / homogenous design
3. Baby Boomers
a. Birth Rates increase due to War ending
a. Job was to influence man and her son as housewife
b. Consumer culture
c. Leave-it to Beaver mentality
5. Influence on Woman
a. Dr. Benjamin Spuck (leading pediatrician) Author of Baby and Child Care-
i. You know more than you think
ii. Stay home
b. Politics: Adlai Stevenson (democratic Candidate 1852 & 1958)
i. “all work you can do you can do with a baby on your lap or on the couch”
i. Doris Day
ii. Esquire Magazine- “Working woman is a menace”
6. Gender Roles
i. Married, cooked, cleaned, raised children, PTA, entertained guests
i. Provide, protect family
What changes have occurred from WWII era to 1950s?
What conflicts Occur?
Task: The Atlantic Magazine has hired you to write an advice column to teenage girls. Using the documents and class notes write an advice to Middle school girls about their body developing and how they should prepare themselves to be a woman/wife/ how to land a man-
In doing so be sure to critique or applaud Betty Friedan
Write journal entry of a teenage/collage bound girl from 7am to 7pm on a Friday (school and night included) during the 1950s. In doing so be sure to critique or applaud Betty Friedan
Write a strong opinionated letter to Betty Friedan or Benjamin Spuck either applauding or critiquing their views on women
Choose the role of a male and tell the story of you breaking up with a girl in the 1950s and tell why.
Your sister is about to date- give her advice and tell her what to do and what not to according to society
Could you live with an era where women are viewed in this manner? Why or why not?
1. 1960’s Background
a. Women’s Rights movement was 2nd wave of Activism (first was early 1900s)
b. Inspired from Civil rights movement
c. Middle Class
d. Caused by Sexual Revolution of 1960s- (sparked by birth control pill)
e. Target goals
i. Sexual Assault & domestic violence
1. Rape crime increased
a. Susan Brownmiller’s book “Against Her Will”- history of rape
b. Feminists work to create domestic violence shelters and rape crisis hotlines
2. National Organization For Women (NOW)
a. Founded 1966 by group including Betty Friedan (became President) and Rev. Pauli Murray (first African American woman Episcopal priest)
b. Goal: Equality for women
c. Issues Fight for:
i. Eliminate discrimination in workplace , schools, and justice system
ii. Secure abortion, birth control, and reproductive rights for all women
iii. End all forms of violence
iv. Eradicate racism, sexism, and homophobia
v. Promote equality and justice in society
3. Important Females
a. Rachel Carson
i. Wrote controversial book “Silent Spring”- pesticides are destroying wildlife and endangering humanity
b. Betty Friedan
i. Wrote Femine Mystique (1963)- roles of women in Industrial society (housewife)
ii. Gender roles – “Problem without a Name”
iii. Education ill-prepared women for their role
c. Shirley Chisholm
i. First black woman elected in House of Reps
a. First National Commission on the Status of Women
i. Kennedy created in 1961
ii. 1963 commission issued detailing employment discrimination, equal pay, legal inequality, and insufficient support services for working women
b. Equal Pay Act 1963
i. First laws prohibiting sexual discrimination
ii. 1963 average female worker’s wages were equivalent to 58.9% of average male
iii. It abolished wage differences based on sex
c. Civil Rights Act of 1964
i. Can’t discriminate / fire / deprive due to race/ sex
ii. Can’t discriminate against gender identity
iii. Can’t discriminate based on Pregnancy- 1978
iv. No Discrimination based on Age- 1967
v. No discrimination based on genetics
d. Equal Pay Act of 1963
i. Minimum Wages – prohibits against sex in payment of wages
e. Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act 2009
i. If fired b/c of previous instance in Civil Rights Act you can open a claim within 180-300 days
READ THE TWO PROVISIONS IN TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 THAT PERTAIN TO EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION:
SEC. 703. (a) It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer-- (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color,
religion, sex, or national origin; or
(2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Explain what actions the law prohibits employers from taking that pertain to employment discrimination.
Discussion Question: Why do you think the provision on gender was added at the last minute to
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and considered a “fluke”?
Review the accounts of women who became stewardess for airlines in the 1950s and 1960s. From information in the video, what seemed to be the requirements for employment as a stewardess in the 1950s and early 1960s? How does this compare with the responsibilities of a stewardess as listed above?
Discussion Questions: Explain whether you think women who didn’t fulfill the job requirements
could still fulfill the responsibilities of a stewardess. Why do you think such employment requirements existed? Why do you think the EEOC did nothing to address the sex discrimination charges filed by the flight attendants?
Video Segement 4
Why did Lorena Weeks apply for a job as a “switch-man” at Southern Bell?
Why was she denied this position?
Review the reasons Southern Bell denied Weeks the job as switch-man.
Discussion Questions: Discuss whether you feel Southern Bell’s reasons for denying Weeks the
position had merit. What was the federal appeals court ruling and why do you think this was such
a landmark case?
Student Handout: Gender Discrimination Scenarios2
Directions: In your group, review the scenarios and answer choices. Examine the civil rights laws enforced by the EEOC and determine whether the actions of individuals in the scenarios violated one or more of the laws. Then determine which answer choice (A, B, C, or D) is the best response to the scenario question. In some cases there may be more than one correct answer choice. Then formulate an answer as to whether a law has been violated, and if so, which law and why. Be prepared to present your finding to the class using the following guide.
Class Presentation Guide:
• Summarize the circumstances around the scenario
• Identify and describe the answer choice you chose
• Provide an explanation as to why you feel your answer choice is the best choice and identify the law you believe applies to the scenario and answer choice.
Scenario 1: Esther recently got a job in the storeroom of a local department store. On her first day, one of the delivery men is very rude to her, calling her slow and questioning her ability to lift heavy boxes. Since then, the deliveryman has attached suggestive or insulting cartoons and jokes about women on the packages he leaves. What should Esther do?
A. Esther should do nothing. She’s new to the job and shouldn’t make waves. The deliveryman doesn’t work for the store, so store management can’t do anything about it.
B. Esther should tell the deliveryman that his behavior is offensive and should stop.
C. Esther should tell her supervisor or a manager responsible for handling harassment and discrimination complaints about the delivery man’s conduct.
D. Esther should retaliate by calling the deliveryman’s company and complaining to them.
Scenario 2: Carlos and Gayle work at a coffee bistro downtown. For a time they were dating, but Gayle broke off the relationship when she became assistant manager. Later, Gayle began to have second thoughts, checking in on Carlos even when she wasn’t working that shift and asking him to get back together. When Carlos told her no, she changed his schedule so that she wouldn’t have to work with him. As a result his hours were cut in half. Does Gayle’s action constitute sexual harassment?
A. Yes. It is illegal for Gayle to reduce Carlos’s hours because he refused to date her.
B. No. Gayle’s behavior is not sexual harassment because she didn’t make any physical sexual advances at him after they broke up. She only talked to him.
C. No. Gayle’s behavior is not sexual harassment because she and Carlos used to date and asking to get back together is acceptable behavior.
D. No. Gayle’s behavior is not sexual harassment because only females can be sexually harassed.
Scenario 3: Two job seekers, Robert and Amanda, went to an employment agency to find temporary jobs for the summer. Both of them are in college and active in athletics with good grades. The agency received a job prospect for a receptionist at a country club. The agency sent Amanda out for the job and told Robert that they could not refer him for receptionist position because the country club requested a young lady. Did the employment agency discriminate against Robert?
A. No. Gender discrimination laws only apply to employers and not employment agencies that refer candidates to other companies.
B. No. Robert is not protected from discrimination because he would only be applying for the job, not an actual employee of the country club.
C. No. the employment agency was only following the request of the country club, which refused to hire a man as a receptionist. The country club, not the employment agency is responsible for the discrimination.
D. Yes. An employment agency cannot refuse to refer someone for a position where gender is not a factor in job performance.
Scenario 4: Jeanette was offered a job as a waitress at a local restaurant. At the end of her interview, she mentioned that she was pregnant, but that she was perfectly capable of performing her duties as a waitress. When Jeanette called to get her start date, the manager said he had hired someone else. He said he was afraid that Jeanette would hurt her baby carrying heavy trays of food and that the customers might not like having a pregnant woman waiting on them. He invited her to reapply after she had her baby. Is the manager’s decision illegal?
A. No. The manager did not discriminate against Jeanette because he invited her to reapply after she gave birth, and refused to hire her only out of concern for the health and safety of Jeanette and her baby.
B. Yes. The manager discriminated against Jeanette when he refused to hire her because she is pregnant.
C. No. The manager can legally decide not to hire Jeanette because restaurant customers may not want pregnant servers.
D. Yes. Once the manager offered Jeanette the job, he had no right to change his mind and hire someone else.
Scenario 5: Gina and Jorge work as part-time nurses’ aides for a local hospital. Both have the same level of education and responsibilities and both have been at the hospital the same amount of time. Both do the same type of work tending to patients and performing their duties. Both have excellent job reviews, with nothing negative noted in their records. One day, while having lunch, Gina found out that Jorge’s salary was about 30% higher than hers. She didn’t say anything to Jorge, but later asked her supervisor if there was any reason she was being paid less. Her supervisor said it is hospital policy to pay males more because they do most of the heavy
lifting of patients and equipment. Is the hospital discriminating against Gina?
A. No. Gina works part-time and federal law does not protect part-time workers.
B. No. Federal law recognizes that some jobs are more suited for one gender over the other and thus paying that gender more money is allowed.
C. Yes. Both Gina and Jorge’s job responsibilities and seniority are the same.
D. Yes, Both Gina and Jorge’s performance records are excellent and Gina has never been told she should be doing more.
Scenario 6: Alex recently graduated from high school and began work as a manager at a retail store that specializes in clothing for teenage girls. He does not get along with an older female employee (age 45) who works part-time. At one staff meeting, Alex gave the older employee a cane as a joke. On another occasion, Alex told the older employee to watch MTV because she didn’t relate well to the younger customers. Alex regularly refers to this older employee as “Grandma.” After several months, Alex decides to fire the older employee because he wants to hire someone younger. Alex believes a younger employee will relate better to the store’s teenage customers. Is this conduct illegal?
A. Yes. Federal law protects workers age 40 or older from job discrimination and harassment based on their age.
B. No. The federal age discrimination law does not apply to teenage workers like Alex, so it is not illegal for him to fire the older employee.
C. No. As a manager, Alex has the authority to make decisions about hiring and firing employees.
D. No. Alex did not discriminate against the older employee because it is important for a retail store that markets to teenagers to hire workers who are the same age as its costumers
Scenario 7: Cindy had a good work record with a company but felt she was unfairly passed over for a promotion and she subsequently filed a charge of discrimination against the company. The EEOC investigated and spoke to Cindy, her manager, and several other employees. The investigation found no discrimination and closed the case. Cindy quit her job and began looking elsewhere. The day after her last day, Cindy’s manager called her at home criticized her for talking to the EEOC and gave her a negative reference. Did the supervisor violate the law?
A. No. It was reasonable for the manager to criticize Cindy and give her a negative reference because the EEOC investigation found no violation and was disruptive to the workplace.
B. No. The manager did not violate the law because he called Cindy at her home and not at work.
C. Yes. Cindy’s manager illegally retaliated against her by giving her a negative reference because she filed a charge of discrimination with the EEOC.
D. No. Federal law only protects current employees from discrimination. Because Cindy was no longer employed by the company, it was not illegal for the supervisor to give her a negative reference.
Scenario 8: Maria applied to work as a summer intern at a radio station. The interview went very well. A Human Resources employee conducted a background check, which included an Internet search of Maria’s name. Maria’s Facebook page appeared in the Internet search results, indicating it was available for public viewing. The page featured a picture of Maria standing next to a mile marker in a T-shirt imprinted with “My Aunt is My Hero” and a pink ribbon. Touched and curious, the Human Resources manager conducted an Internet search for Maria’s name and “breast cancer” and learned that Maria’s aunt was diagnosed with breast cancer but has responded well to treatment. The Human Resources manager wrote a note on the white board in
his office: “Touch base with Maria: aunt’s cancer treatment.” The employee’s sister was recently diagnosed with breast cancer, and he is interested in learning more about successful treatments. Maria is hired. Did the company discriminate against Maria?
A. No. The company did not discriminate against Maria; it hired her as a summer intern.
B. Yes. The company discriminated against Maria by viewing her Facebook page.
C. Yes. The company discriminated against Maria by seeking out information about her aunt’s breast cancer and posting a note in public about Maria and her aunt’s cancer treatment.
D. No. The Human Resources employee should not have conducted the Internet search for Maria’s name and “breast cancer” and should not have written “Touch base with Maria: aunt’s cancer treatment” on his white board. However, the employee took these actions to help his sister, not to hurt Maria.
1. Presidential Executive Order 11246
a. Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson Sept 1965
b. Prohibited bias against women in hiring by federal government contractors
1. More women attended college
2. More women in workforce
3. More women go into professions
4. Women’s liberation movement is born
5. NOW pushed for women’s reproductive freedoms, including abortion,
6. Generated a movement for gay rights
2. Griswold Vs. CT 1965
a. Estelle Griswold was executive director of planned Parenthood League
b. Case involved CT law that prohibited use of contraceptives
c. Ruled that Constitution protected Right to Privacy in 1st amendment
d. Found that CT should allow married couples to use birth control
3. Title IX- The Higher Education Act
a. ““No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal assistance.”
4. March 22nd 1972 Congress approved Equal Rights Amendment
i. Bella Abzug-Congresswoman
ii. Shirley Chisholm- Congresswoman
iii. National Women’s Political Caucus
iv. Gloria Steinem – Ms. Magazine
i. Phyllis Schlafy – STOP Era
ii. Argument – it would destroy the American family by encouraging women to work and leave their children in day care centers
5. 51.5% percent of all adult women held jobs outside the home.
6. Includes over 60% of women with children between the ages of 6-17.
7. Inequalities in pay still exist.
8. Feminization of poverty?
Is Today the 3rd Era??????
What changes have occurred from 1960-1980?
What conflicts Occur?
Name ____________________________________ Date_______
Discontent and Transformation for women Period_____
A Woman’s World CD Assignment
Traditionally women have been labeled as inferior to men. Women have gone through much conflict in order to change their status and role in society. Using the Essential Question “To what degree is change dependent on conflict”, discuss what women’s roles were during the time period and what conflicts (s) were faced by the women.
In doing so:
Create a Music CD Describing the life of women from the:
1900’s – 1920’s
1970s- Present (2)
In doing so you will choose songs/ artists that depict the era and the struggle of women during each phrase above (6 total). Remember to I.C.E.D! Also Remember to 1) State the conflict and the change that occurred (or vice versa)
During the 1950’s women were subservient to men. Beyoncé’s “If I were a boy” song states “If I were a boy… I'd put myself first. And make the rules as I go, 'Cause I know that she'd be faithful, Waiting for me to come home” Beyoncé clearly wrote this song about the 1950s life as a woman because while her husband is working she is home taking care of the children and vacuuming as well as preparing dinner in hopes to please him (according to Article A). The struggle faced by Beyoncé in her song “If I were a boy” clearly relates to the struggle that women were viewed as inferior to men during the 1950’s because she like many women of the time did not stick up for themselves and rights. Society told them how they should behave and what to do- as demonstrated in textbooks in document C. This was a major change for them compared to the 1940’s during WWII, where many women were told to be “Rosie to Riveter and world while the boys were away. The change from working to becoming a housewife was very difficult for some women, and domestic abuse was just one of the many problems faced by women of the era. Therefore Beyoncé’s song clearly relates to the fact that women in the 1950s were viewed as inferior to men.
Your CD should have a cover, a title, and at least 6 songs w/ explanations
Grading MYP Rubric
WOMEN’S CD RUBRIC
Criterion A: Knowing and Understanding
• Use Vocabulary in context
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of subject-specific content and concepts, using descriptions, explanations and examples
Achievement Level Vocabulary Content Knowledge Describes/ explains Score
0 None None None
1-2 Some vocabulary Basic knowledge Basic – w/ limited Description
3-4 Some Vocabulary Satisfactory knowledge of content Simple descriptions w/ Simple explanation and/or examples
5-6 Considerable relevant vocabulary, often accurate Substantial knowledge and understanding of content and concepts Substantial descriptions w/ Substantial explanation and evidence
7-8 Consistently uses relevant vocabulary accurately Excellent knowledge and understanding of content and concepts Detailed descriptions, explanations and examples
Criteria C Communication
• Communicates information and ideas with clarity
• Organize information and ideas effectively for the task
• List sources of information in a way that follows the task instruction
Achievement Level Communicated with clarity Organizes information and ideas effectively for the task List sources of information in a way that follows the task SCORE
1-2 Communicated information and in style that is NOT ALWAYS Clear Organizes information and ideas in a LIMITED WAY INCONSISTENTLY Lists Sources, NOT following the task instructions
3-4 Communicated information and in style that is Somewhat Clear SOMEWHAT Organizes information and ideas Lists Sources in a way that SOMETIMES follows the task instructions
5-6 Communicated information and in style that is MOSTLY Clear MOSTLY Organizes information and ideas Lists Sources in a way that OFTEN follows the task instructions
7-8 Communicated information and in style that is COMPLETELY Clear COMPLETELY Organizes information and ideas EFFECTIVELY Lists Sources in a way that ALWAYS follows the task instructions
TOTAL SCORE: ___________________