The Three States of Water:
What makes water, water?
Water is everywhere…. because it covers over 70% of the earth's surface
Water is the most peculiar liquid on earth, and its peculiarity is exactly why it is necessary for life.
Water is unique, because it can exist in gaseous, liquid, and solid phases within the close range of temperatures and pressures found on planet.
A closer look at water reveals that water is made up of molecules looks like strange qualities come from the unique shape of the water molecule. Each molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, arranged such that one side of the molecule is positively charged while the other side is negatively charged.
If two water molecules come together, the positive side of one is attracted to the negative side of the other, making the molecules hang on to each together.
This simple act is responsible for the high heat capacity, surface tension, cohesion, adhesion, and other characteristics that make water so important to the earth's biosphere.
In general, when considering the states of matter, solids are denser than liquids and liquids are denser than gases. Water is different in this regard, the average speed of molecular motion determines a substance's phase. Temperature, is a measure of the average speed of molecular motion.
That is, when water molecules slow down to change from vapor to liquid or ice, the kinetic energy of their movement changes into another form of energy, heat. When water evaporates from a sea to become water vapor, heat energy becomes the kinetic energy of the added motion. Let us watch the three states of water, the SOLID STATE of Water
When water is in its solid state, the water molecules are packed close together preventing it from changing shape. Ice has a very regular pattern with the molecules rigidly apart from one another connected by the hydrogen bonds that form a crystalline lattice. These crystals have a number of open regions and pockets making ice less dense than liquid water. This is why ice floats on water.
Ice forms when the temperature is below freezing that is 0°Celsius or 32°Fahrenheit.
Ice, snow, and frost are examples of water in the solid state.
Winter is the season that you see a lot of solid water. Other examples of solid water are ice cubes, icicles, ice on a skating rink. The LIQUID STATE of Water
When ice is warm over freezing, it melts and becomes liquid water. As a liquid, the attractive forces between molecules weaken and individual molecules can begin to move around each other. Because the molecules can slip and slide around one another, water takes the shape of any container it is in.
Liquid water is found in The Gaseous state or water vapor
The third state of water is the gaseous state. In this state, water molecules move very rapidly and are not bound together. Despite the fact that we cannot see water in its gaseous state, we can feel it in the air on a hot, humid day.
Normally, water boils at a temperature of 100°C or 212°F, forming water vapor. People assume that the visible steam from a boiling kettle is water vapor.
But, the steam that we see consists of very small water droplets suspended in the air, while water vapor is the invisible gas that results when water evaporates.
Water evaporates faster with moving air. Warm, fast moving air makes water evaporate faster.
Like wet clothes are drying in the warm wind.
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Water, is one of the primary sources of the energy to run the Earth's weather engine.
To understand the weather, we need to understand what happens when water changes its state.
These changes are Evaporation: From liquid to gas (water vapor).
Condensation: From gas (water vapor) to liquid.
Freezing: From liquid to solid (ice).
Melting: From solid to liquid.
Sublimation: From gas directly to solid without becoming liquid.
Water is unique, because it can exist in gaseous, liquid, and solid phases within the close range of temperatures and pressures found on planet. Water's phase changes the weather because each change either releases or takes up energy in the form of latent heat.
Water constantly cycles throughout the atmosphere, taking each physical state at one time or another.