This 63-slide package of teaching PowerPoint presentations covers all of 3.C (Variation) in the AP Biology (2015) curriculum. Each slide includes the 'Essential Knowledge' being covered as well as key terms that students should make note of (editable).
Unit 3.C includes four sections:
• 3.C.1 - Phenotypes
• 3.C.2 - Variation
• 3.C.3 - Viral Genetics
The presentations themselves contains minimal information as they are intended to be used with teacher guidance. There are 'Video' slides which link to relevant and informative YouTube content. The slides are formatted to be visually pleasing and to also print well for handouts or revision. Please see the preview file (first 8 slides) for an idea of the aesthetic and level of detail in the presentation. The relevant 'Essential Knowledge' can be found below.
I have had success using these presentations to review topics after students have been exposed to the material at home. I typically have the class read relevant material (book, site, etc.) and then watch the videos the day before introducing a topic. During the class period, I use the slides to structure the discussion around the AP Bio Essential Knowledge objectives. The remaining class time is spent reinforcing the knowledge or working on activities geared toward the 'Learning Objectives'.
I have included PDF version of the PowerPoints for handout purposes.
**These presentations are based on the AP Biology Course Guide and does not follow any textbook
As always, please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvements. These are always a work in progress!
Dokimi AP Biology PPTs:
AP Biology PPT Bundle (Big Ideas 1-4)
Big Idea 1 - Evolution (BUNDLE)
• 1.A - Evolution (all)n
1.A.1 - Natural Selection
1.A.2/3 - Phenotypic Variation & Genetic Drift
1.A.4 - Evidence for Evolution
• 1.B - Phylogeny
• 1.C - Speciation
• 1.D - Origin of Life
Big Idea 2 - Matter (BUNDLE)
• 2.A - Energy & Matter (all)
• 2.B - Cell Membrane
• 2.C - Feedback & Response
• 2.D - Environmental Effects
• 2.E - Regulation & Coordination
Big Idea 3 - Information (BUNDLE)
• 3.A - Inheritance (all)
3.A.1 - DNA & RNA
3.A.2 - Cell Division
3.A.3 - Mendelian Patterns
3.A.4 - Non-Mendelian Patterns (free)
• 3.B - Gene Regulation
• 3.C - Genetic Variation
• 3.D - Cell Communication
• 3.E - Communication
Big Idea 4 - Interactions & Complexity (BUNDLE)
• 4.A - Interactions (all)
4.A.1 - Biomolecules
4.A.2/3/4 - Differentiation, Organelles & Organ System Interactions
4.A.5/6 - Community & Ecosystem Interactions
• 4.B - Competition & Cooperation
• 4.C - Diversity
3.C - Variation
The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.
3.C.1 - Phenotypes
Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.
a. Alterations in a DNA sequence can lead to changes in the type or amount of the protein produced and the consequent phenotype.
- 1. DNA mutations can be positive, negative or neutral based on the effect or the lack of effect they have on the resulting nucleic acid or protein and the phenotypes that are conferred by the protein.
b. Errors in DNA replication or DNA repair mechanisms, and external factors, including radiation and reactive chemicals, can cause random changes, e.g., mutations in the DNA.
- 1. Whether or not a mutation is detrimental, beneficial or neutral depends on the environmental context. Mutations are the primary source of genetic variation.
c. Errors in mitosis or meiosis can result in changes in phenotype.
- 1. Changes in chromosome number often result in new phenotypes, including sterility caused by triploidy and increased vigor of other polyploids.
- 2. Changes in chromosome number often result in human disorders with developmental limitations, including Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and XO (Turner syndrome).
d. Changes in genotype may affect phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. Genetic changes that enhance survival and reproduction can be selected by environmental conditions.
- 1. Selection results in evolutionary change.
3.C.2 - Variation
Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.
a. The imperfect nature of DNA replication and repair increases variation.
b. The horizontal acquisitions of genetic information primarily in prokaryotes via transformation (uptake of naked DNA), transduction (viral transmission of genetic information), conjugation (cell-to-cell transfer), and transposition (movement of DNA segments within and between DNA molecules) increase variation.
c. Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes involving gamete formation, including crossing-over during meiosis and the random assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, and fertilization serve to increase variation. Reproduction processes that increase genetic variation are evolutionarily conserved and are shared by various organisms.
3.C.3 - Viral Genetics
Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.
a. Viral replication differs from other reproductive strategies and generates genetic variation via various mechanisms.
- 1. Viruses have highly efficient replicative capabilities that allow for rapid evolution and acquisition of new phenotypes.
- 2. Viruses replicate via a component assembly model allowing one virus to produce many progeny simultaneously via the lytic cycle.
- 3. Virus replication allows for mutations to occur through usual host pathways.
- 4. RNA viruses lack replication error-checking mechanisms, and thus have higher rates of mutation.
- 5. Related viruses can combine/recombine information if they infect the same host cell.
- 6. HIV is a well-studied system where the rapid evolution of a virus within the host contributes to the pathogenicity of viral infection.
b. The reproductive cycles of viruses facilitate transfer of genetic information.
- 1. Viruses transmit DNA or RNA when they infect a host cell.
- 2. Some viruses are able to integrate into the host DNA and establish a latent (lysogenic) infection. These latent viral genomes can result in new properties for the host such as increased pathogenicity in bacteria.