This 130-slide package of teaching PowerPoint presentations covers all of 4.A Interactionsin the AP Biology (2015) curriculum. Each slide includes the 'Essential Knowledge' being covered as well as key terms that students should make note of (editable).
Section 4.A includes six sections:
• 4.A.1 - Biomolecules
• 4.A.2/3/4 - Differentiation, Organelles & Organ Systems
• 4.A.5/6 - Community & Ecosystem Interactions
The presentations themselves contains minimal information as they are intended to be used with teacher guidance. There are 'Video' slides throughout which link to relevant and informative YouTube content. The slides are formatted to be visually pleasing and to also print well for handouts or revision. Please see the preview file (first 8 slides) for an idea of the aesthetic and level of detail in the presentation. The relevant 'Essential Knowledge' can be found below.
I have had success using these presentations to review topics after students have been exposed to the material at home. I typically have the class read relevant material (book, site, etc.) and then watch the videos the day before introducing a topic. During the class period, I use the slides to structure the discussion around the AP Bio Essential Knowledge objectives. The remaining class time is spent reinforcing the knowledge or working on activities geared toward the 'Learning Objectives'.
**These presentations are based on the AP Biology Course Guide and does not follow any textbook
As always, please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvements. These are always a work in progress!
Dokimi AP Biology PPTs:
Big Idea 1 - Evolution (BUNDLE)
• 1.A - Evolution (all)n
1.A.1 - Natural Selection
1.A.2/3 - Phenotypic Variation & Genetic Drift
1.A.4 - Evidence for Evolution
• 1.B - Phylogeny
• 1.C - Speciation
• 1.D - Origin of Life
Big Idea 2 - Matter
• 2.A - Energy & Matter (all)
2.A.1 - Energy Input (free)
2.A.2 - Energy Capture & Storage
2.A.3 - Environmental Exchanges/Interaction
• 2.B - Cell Membrane
Big Idea 3 - Information
• 3.A - Inheritance (all)
3.A.1 - DNA & RNA
3.A.2 - Cell Division
3.A.3 - Mendelian Patterns
3.A.4 - Non-Mendelian Patterns (free)
Big Idea 4 - Interactions & Complexity (BUNDLE)
• 4.A - Interactions (all)
4.A.1 - Biomolecules
4.A.2/3/4 - Differentiation, Organelles & Organ System Interactions
4.A.5/6 - Community & Ecosystem Interactions
• 4.B - Competition & Cooperation
• 4.C - Diversity
The Essential Knowledge covered includes:
4.A.1 - Biomolecules
The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.
a. Structure and function of polymers are derived from the way their monomers are assembled.
- 1. In nucleic acids, biological information is encoded in sequences of nucleotide monomers. Each nucleotide has
structural components: a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), a phosphate and a
nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine or uracil). DNA and RNA di?ffer in function and diff?er
slightly in structure, and these structural di?fferences account for the diff?ering functions.
- 2. In proteins, the speci?c order of amino acids in a polypeptide (primary structure) interacts with the environment
to determine the overall shape of the protein, which also involves secondary tertiary and quaternary
structure and, thus, its function. The R group of an amino acid can be categorized by chemical properties
(hydrophobic, hydrophilic and ionic), and the interactions of these R groups determine structure
and function of that region of the protein.
- 3. In general, lipids are nonpolar; however, phospholipids exhibit structural properties, with polar regions that
interact with other polar molecules such as water, and with nonpolar regions where di?erences in saturation
determine the structure and function of lipids.
- 4. Carbohydrates are composed of sugar monomers whose structures and bonding with each other by
dehydration synthesis determine the properties and functions of the molecules. Illustrative examples
include: cellulose versus starch.
b. Directionality influences structure and function of the polymer.
- 1. Nucleic acids have ends, defined by the 3' and 5' carbons of the sugar in the nucleotide, that determine the
direction in which complementary nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis and the direction in which
transcription occurs (from 5' to 3').
- 2. Proteins have an amino end and a carboxyl end, and consist of a linear sequence of amino acids connected
by the formation of peptide bonds by dehydration synthesis between the amino and carboxyl groups of
4.A.2 - Differentiation
The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.
a. Ribosomes are small, universal structures comprised of two interacting parts: ribosomal RNA and protein. In a sequential manner, these cellular components interact to become the site of protein synthesis where the translation of the genetic instructions yields speci?c polypeptides.
b. Endoplasmic reticulum occurs in two forms: smooth and rough.
- 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum functions to compartmentalize the cell, serves as
mechanical support, provides site-specific protein synthesis with membrane-bound ribosomes
and plays a role in intracellular transport.
- 2. In most cases, smooth ER synthesizes lipids.
c. The Golgi complex is a membrane-bound structure that consists of a series of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae)
- 1. Functions of the Golgi include synthesis and packaging of materials (small molecules) for
transport (in vesicles), and production of lysosomes.
d. Mitochondria specialize in energy capture and transformation.
- 1. Mitochondria have a double membrane that allows compartmentalization within the mitochondria and
is important to its function.
- 2. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds
- 3. Cristae contain enzymes important to ATP production; cristae also increase the surface area for
e. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes, which are important in intracellular digestion, the recycling of a cell’s organic materials and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion in a variety of ways.
f. A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. In plants, a large vacuole serves many functions, from storage of pigments or poisonous substances to a role in cell growth. In addition, a large central vacuole allows for a large surface area to volume ratio.
g. Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in algae and higher plants that capture energy through photosynthesis.
- 1. The structure and function relationship in the chloroplast allows cells to capture the energy available
in sunlight and convert it to chemical bond energy via photosynthesis.
- 2. Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls, which are responsible for the green color of a plant and are the key
light-trapping molecules in photosynthesis. There are several types of chlorophyll,
but the predominant form in plants is chlorophyll a.
- 3. Chloroplasts have a double outer membrane that creates a compartmentalized structure, which supports its
function. Within the chloroplasts are membrane-bound structures called thylakoids.
Energy-capturing reactions housed in the thylakoids are organized in stacks,
called “grana,” to produce ATP and NADPH2, which fuel carbon-fixing reactions in
the Calvin-Benson cycle. Carbon ?fixation occurs in the stroma, where molecules of CO2
are converted to carbohydrates.
4.A.3 - Organelles
Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs.
a. Differentiation in development is due to external and internal cues that trigger gene regulation by proteins that bind to DNA
b. Structural and functional divergence of cells in development is due to expression of genes specific to a particular tissue or organ type.
c. Environmental stimuli can affect gene expression in a mature cell.
4.A.4 - Organ Systems
Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.
a. Interactions and coordination between organs provide essential biological activities.
- Stomach and small intestines
- Kidney and bladder
- Root, stem and leaf
b. Interactions and coordination between systems provide essential biological activities.
- Respiratory and circulatory
- Nervous and muscular
- Plant vascular and leaf
The Essential Knowledge covered includes:
4.A.5 - Community Interactions
Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways.
a. The structure of a community is measured and described in terms of species composition and species diversity.
b. Mathematical or computer models are used to illustrate and investigate population interactions within and environmental impacts on a community.
c. Mathematical models and graphical representations are used to illustrate population growth patterns and interactions.
- 1. Reproduction without constraints results in the exponential growth of a population.
- 2. A population can produce a density of individuals that exceeds the system’s resource
- 3. As limits to growth due to density-dependent and density-independent factors are
imposed, a logistic growth model generally ensues.
- 4. Demographics data with respect to age distributions and fecundity can be used
to study human population
4.A.6 - Ecosystem Interactions
Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.
a. Energy flows, but matter is recycled.
b. Changes in regional and global climates and in atmospheric composition in?uence patterns of primary productivity.
c. Organisms within food webs and food chains interact.
d. Food webs and food chains are dependent on primary productivity.
e. Models allow the prediction of the impact of change in biotic and abiotic factors.
- 1. Competition for resources and other factors limits growth and can be described
by the logistic model.
- 2. Competition for resources, territoriality, health, predation, accumulation of
wastes and other factors contribute to density-dependent population regulation.
f. Human activities impact ecosystems on local, regional and global scales.
- 1. As human populations have increased in numbers, their impact on habitats for
other species have been magni?ed.
- 2. In turn, this has often reduced the population size of the a?ected species and
resulted in habitat destruction and, in some cases, the extinction of species.
g. Many adaptations of organisms are related to obtaining and using energy and matter in a particular environment.