This 67-slide package of teaching PowerPoint presentations covers all of 4.B (Competition & Cooperation) in the AP Biology (2015) curriculum. Each slide includes the 'Essential Knowledge' being covered as well as key terms that students should make note of (editable).
Section 4.B includes four sections:
• 4.B.1 - Enzymes
• 4.B.2 - Cooperative Interactions
• 4.B.3 - Population Interactions
• 4.B.4 - Ecosystem Distribution
The presentations themselves contains minimal information as they are intended to be used with teacher guidance. There are 'Video' slides throughout which link to relevant and informative YouTube content. The slides are formatted to be visually pleasing and to also print well for handouts or revision. Please see the preview file (first 8 slides) for an idea of the aesthetic and level of detail in the presentation. The relevant 'Essential Knowledge' can be found below.
I have had success using these presentations to review topics after students have been exposed to the material at home. I typically have the class read relevant material (book, site, etc.) and then watch the videos the day before introducing a topic. During the class period, I use the slides to structure the discussion around the AP Bio Essential Knowledge objectives. The remaining class time is spent reinforcing the knowledge or working on activities geared toward the 'Learning Objectives'.
**These presentations are based on the AP Biology Course Guide and does not follow any textbook
As always, please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvements. These are always a work in progress!
Dokimi AP Biology PPTs:
Big Idea 1 - Evolution (BUNDLE)
• 1.A - Evolution (all)n
1.A.1 - Natural Selection
1.A.2/3 - Phenotypic Variation & Genetic Drift
1.A.4 - Evidence for Evolution
• 1.B - Phylogeny
• 1.C - Speciation
• 1.D - Origin of Life
Big Idea 2 - Matter
• 2.A - Energy & Matter (all)
2.A.1 - Energy Input (free)
2.A.2 - Energy Capture & Storage
2.A.3 - Environmental Exchanges/Interaction
• 2.B - Cell Membrane
Big Idea 3 - Information
• 3.A - Inheritance (all)
3.A.1 - DNA & RNA
3.A.2 - Cell Division
3.A.3 - Mendelian Patterns
3.A.4 - Non-Mendelian Patterns (free)
Big Idea 4 - Interactions & Complexity (BUNDLE)
• 4.A - Interactions (all)
4.A.1 - Biomolecules
4.A.2/3/4 - Differentiation, Organelles & Organ System Interactions
4.A.5/6 - Community & Ecosystem Interactions
• 4.B - Competition & Cooperation
• 4.C - Diversity
4.B.1 - Enzymes
Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.
a. Change in the structure of a molecular system may result in a change of the function of the system.
b. The shape of enzymes, active sites and interaction with specifi?c molecules are essential for basic functioning of the enzyme.
- 1. For an enzyme-mediated chemical reaction to occur, the substrate must be complementary
to the surface properties (shape and charge) of the active site. In other words,
the substrate must fi?t into the enzyme’s active site.
- 2. Cofactors and coenzymes a?ect enzyme function; this interaction relates to a structural
change that alters the activity rate of the enzyme. The enzyme may only become
active when all the appropriate cofactors or coenzymes are present and bind to the
appropriate sites on the enzyme.
c. Other molecules and the environment in which the enzyme acts can enhance or inhibit enzyme activity. Molecules can bind reversibly or irreversibly to the active or allosteric sites, changing the activity of the enzyme.
d. The change in function of an enzyme can be interpreted from data regarding the concentrations of product or substrate as a function of time. These representations demonstrate the relationship between an enzyme’s activity, the disappearance of substrate, and/or presence of a competitive inhibitor.
4.B.2 - Cooperation
Cooperative interactions within organisms promote effciency in the use of energy and matter.
a. Organisms have areas or compartments that perform a subset of
functions related to energy and matter, and these parts contribute
to the whole.
- 1. At the cellular level, the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and, for eukaryotes, the organelles
contribute to the overall specialization and functioning of the cell.
- 2. Within multicellular organisms, specialization of organs contributes to the overall
functioning of the organism.
-- Exchange of gases
-- Circulation of fl?uids
-- Digestion of food
-- Excretion of wastes
- 3. Interactions among cells of a population of unicellular organisms can be similar to those
of multicellular organisms, and these interactions lead to increased efficiency and utilization of energy and matter.
-- Bacterial community in the rumen of animals
-- Bacterial community in and around deep sea vents
4.B.3 - Population Interactions
Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.
a. Interactions between populations a?ffect the distributions and abundance of populations.
- 1. Competition, parasitism, predation, mutualism and commensalism can affect population dynamics.
- 2. Relationships among interacting populations can be characterized by positive and negative effects,
and can be modeled mathematically (predator/prey, epidemiological models, invasive species).
- 3. Many complex symbiotic relationships exist in an ecosystem, and feedback control systems play
a role in the functioning of these ecosystems.
b. A population of organisms has properties that are different from those of the individuals that make up the population. The cooperation and competition between individuals contributes to these diff?erent properties.
c. Species-specific and environmental catastrophes, geological events, the sudden influx/depletion of abiotic resources or increased human activities affect species distribution and abundance.
- Loss of keystone species
4.B.4 - Ecosystem Distribution
Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time.
a. Human impact accelerates change at local and global levels.
- Logging, slash and burn agriculture, urbanization, monocropping, infrastructure development (dams,
transmission lines, roads), and global climate change threaten ecosystems and life on Earth.
- An introduced species can exploit a new niche free of predators or competitors, thus exploiting new resources.
- Introduction of new diseases can devastate native species.
b. Geological and meteorological events impact ecosystem distribution.
- 1. Biogeographical studies illustrate these changes.
-- El Niño
-- Meteor impact on dinosaurs