This packet is a notes guide that follows along with Chapter 31 (Societies at a Crossroads) in the 5th edition of Jerry Bentley’s textbook Traditions and Encounters (closely aligns with earlier editions of the textbook as well). It is used in an AP World History class, but could easily be adapted to be used in any other history class utilizing this textbook. The packet requires students to create two summary notes for each sub-section of the chapter as well as answer focus questions related to the readings as they go. The packet concludes with students needing to identify and describe an example of each of the Five Themes of AP World History somewhere within the content of the chapter. The Proof-of-Reading (POR) packet serves as a great guide for students to complete as they read the chapter and can be used as a review for course content as they prepare to take the AP World History Exam. Packets are available on the WorldHistoryTeach store at TpT for chapters 7-38 of the Traditions and Encounters textbook.