Young children benefit from a strategy from Singapore Math—namely using a Concrete to Pictorial to Abstract (CPA) strategy.
Each concept is introduced at the concrete level using a word problem that is solved using manipulatives on a special mat showing a five frame (or two five-frames for some types of problems).
After the concept is introduced with concrete manipulatives on a five frame, additional word problems are shown using a pictorial approach with pictures of the five frame so that drawings can be made to represent the problem and its solution.
The final step is the abstract version where the word problem is written in algorithmic form and solved writing the number sentence and its solution.
The unit contains a 21-page teacher’s guide and 25 pages of word problems involving all 21 basic addition facts and basic subtraction facts utilized repeatedly in the concrete, pictorial, & abstract models of addition, take-away subtraction, comparative subtraction, missing addend—part/part/whole subtraction, and missing addend—completion subtraction.
Students who complete this unit will have a very sophisticated understanding of both addition and subtraction!