African American ~ Art History ~ 205 Slides ~ Black American ~ Color ~ Visual
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This is a complete presentation on African American Art History which is highly visual and thoroughly annotated. My preview is 20 of the actual slides in pdf format. This will give you the best idea of what the product is like. There are also the below text excerpts.
Pre American Civil War and During American Civil War
Early African American art varied by region. The slave states produced different art forms from the non-slave states.
In the southern United States, the art included: drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels. These art objects originated from West and Central Africa. Quilt making took root in the South among the slaves and endures within the African American community to this day.
In New England: engravings and paintings were the art forms, emanating from western European. Abolitionists sponsored black portrait artists in the North and border states.
There were skilled artisans who were taken from Africa and made slaves in the Southern USA. They resumed using those skills in America.
Post American Civil War
After the Civil War, African American-created art works sometimes became eligible for exhibition. The first place this occurred was in Europe. Paris was the most open for African American art exhibition with Munich and Rome interested as well but not quite as open.
In America, the conditions varied. Artists who were painting in the European romantic and classical traditions of landscapes and portraits were the most likely to gain exhibition status.
The following African American artists worked in the European style and were exhibited in their lifetimes: Edward Mitchell Bannister, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Edmonia Lewis, Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller.
Then America's big cities began granting exhibition opportunities to African Americans. These cities included Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, New York, and New Orleans. There were some discriminatory limitations in place on those opportunities but it was a start.
GREAT MIGRATION: As life in the South during the Reconstruction, in the later 1800s, became increasingly difficult for the freed slaves, many African Americans migrated north. Likewise, many who were part of the Harlem Renaissance came into Harlem with that same migration.
People of African descent from the Caribbean also migrated to the same places in the North and Midwest. They also came together in Harlem in time to join the Harlem Renaissance of the arts.
Harlem was originally an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes. As European immigrants poured into new York during the late 19th century, the whites moved further north, leaving Harlem open for some other group.
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. Many more African Americans arrived in Harlem during the First World War.
The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s in the theater by staging shows with African-American actors playing characters with complex human emotions and yearnings. Blackface and minstrel show traditions were rejected.
The movement spread to all of the art forms from there.
The New Negro was the key factor to the Harlem Renaissance. This person had intellect. Through creating literature, art, and music, this New Negro challenged racism and stereotypes.
There was no one uniting form or style to the Harlem Renaissance. It had diverse styles, almost a Pan-African perspective. Music, including blues and jazz, flowed from it. “Porgy and Bess” was staged by George Gershwin during it with an all black cast.
Some of these people were artists and their work was shown too, although the art movement was slower than the musical one to take hold.
Norman Lewis was part of this movement and he would edge his way into Abstract Expressionism, which emerged in the later 1940s.
This edging into the art movements would continue for decades yet.
In the 1950s and 1960s, few African-American artists were widely known or accepted. But some did make it into important New York galleries. These were: Horace Pippin, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, William T. Williams, Norman Lewis, Thomas Sills, and Sam Gilliam.
The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s further expanded opportunities. The movement itself became subject matter for some of the art.
Galleries and community art centers displayed African-American art which gained a whole new audience for the work across America.
College art teaching positions for African-American artists also expanded.
In the 1970s, some African-American women artists became hybrids so as to express their feminist art concerns along with their African American ones.
In the 1980s, Jean-Michel Basquiat would be the strongest painter in the new movement, Neo Expressionism, and become the darling of the art world, a black man.
With the 21st century, the western art world is the most open to new talent of all colors and sexes that it has ever been.