Ancient Civilizations Reading Comprehension Passages Questions World History

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    Description

    Ancient Civilizations Reading Comprehension Passages, Worksheets, Questions, and Annotations Bundle!


    This bundle contains 8 StudentSavvy Reading Passage & Expository Text Resources! It contains a total of 40 Engaging, Non-Fiction Reading Comprehension Passages with Directions for Student Annotations! Reading Comprehension Questions also included!

    Units include: The Stone Age | Early Humans, Ancient Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Israel, Ancient India, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, and Ancient Rome

    ***UPDATE: Bundle now contains The Stone Age | Early Human Reading Passages!

    Questions & Answer Keys for Each of the 40 Reading Passages!

    COMMON CORE ALIGNED!

    Aligned with Ancient Civilizations Interactive Notebook

    Find the Complete Ancient Civilizations Curriculum Here!

    What’s included in the bundle (overviews of each unit):

    Unit 1: The Stone Age
    1.) The Earliest Humans and the Stone Age

    -Overview of the Stone Age timeline: Three Phases - Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (New Stone Age)

    -Paleolithic Period – Old Stone Age

    -cave paintings (first recorded expressions), period of the hunters and gatherers,

    -Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens

    -Mesolithic Period – Middle Stone Age

    Early beginnings of domesticating animals and farming.

    -Neolithic Period – New Stone Age

    -semi-nomadic lifestyle, some villages with raised animals and crops

    Keywords: Stone Age, Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, Neolithic Period, Homo Habilis (handy man), Homo Erectus (upright man), Homo Sapiens (intelligent man)

    2.) Archaeology and Important Findings

    -Overview of Archaeology and the role of an archaeologist.

    -Discoveries of artifacts (human-made objects) and fossils (human teeth, skull, and bones) and the discovery of how prehistoric people live.

    -Louis and Mary Leakey

    -1974 – Discovery of Lucy in Africa

    -1978 – Laetoili site in Tanzania, hominid footprints preserved in volcanic ash

    -1984 – Richard Leakey finds a nearly complete skeleton of a Homo erectus boy

    3.) The Tools and Artifacts of the Stone Age

    -Brief overview of how the early humans learned to make and control fire, as well as other important tools and discoveries. New technology and tools allowed for more control over their environment.

    -The use of fire

    -The use of wooden spears

    -Prehistoric clothing created with fur, leaves, leather, or grass approx 200,000 BC

    -sewing needles approx.. 30,000BC (made of tiny bones and ivory)

    -Early humans also created hunting bows, drills, axes, awls (pierces holes in wood and leather)

    - Utilized and experimented with bone, ivory, antler, and stone.

    4.) Hunters, Gatherers, and Early Societies

    -Overview of lifestyle – hunter and gatherers were nomads. In their nomadic lifestyle, they migrated and followed animals to hunt.

    They lived in small bands (20-50 people, including children), made up of several families.

    -Men hunted, women gathered berries, fruits, seeds, and nuts from wild plants. Children also worked.

    -With the development of spears and specialized fishing tools, the hunters were able to catch larger amounts of prey to feed their small bands or families.

    -Approx. 70,000-100,000 years ago, early humans migrated from Africa to parts of Asia and Europe. (They most likely migrated due to a depletion of resources and food)

    Keywords: hunters, gatherers, small bands, migration

    5.) Climate Change, Domestication of Animals, and Agriculture

    -Overview of how global warming/climate change melted the ice glaciers, allowing early humans to move to new areas.

    -Overview of domestication of animals

    Approx. 8000-9000 BC – learned to domesticate animals and grow plants, modifying their environment to address their needs

    Sheep and goats 9000BC – raised them for clothes and food

    -milk and meat products as well as clothing and shelter with skin. Used bones for weapons, needles, and other tools

    -Overview of Agriculture

    8,000 BC early humans began planting seeds to raise crops

    -Agricultural Revolution

    -Slash-and-burn agriculture

    -Irrigation – African farmers along the Nile were the first to use irrigation, built canals

    Keywords: domestication, global warming, climate change, settlements, slash-and-burn agriculture, agricultural revolution, agriculture

    Unit 2: Ancient Mesopotamia

    Topics covered in this resource include:
    1.) Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
    -location between the two rivers
    -nomadic versus sedentary lifestyle
    -what was needed for survival
    -the fertile crescent today (no longer fertile) 
    Keywords: nomad, fertile crescent, hunter-gatherer

    2.) Sumerian Life
    -supplies, economy, and inventions
    -building of the Ziggurats
    -hierarchy and society 
    Keywords: ziggurat, empire, city-states, polytheistic

    3.) The Code of Hammurabi
    -overall description of his codes (strict, severe, cruel and unjust)
    -description of how they affected society
    Keywords: Theocracy, stele

    4.) Cuneiform
    -when and how it was first used
    -tools and materials needed for writing
    -how it changed society
    Keywords: cuneiform, tablet, reed, stylus

    5.) The Epic of Gilgamesh
    -earliest form of literature
    - description of independent stories that make a combined epic 
    -overview of the stories
    -who is Gilgamesh? Was he a living person or a fictional character? (According to scholars, he probably was real. The legends that are in the Epic of Gilgamesh are greatly exaggerated and fictional, but a man named Gilgamesh may have existed.)
    Keywords: immortality, epic, heroic

    Unit 3: Ancient Egypt

    Quick overview of topics covered in this resource include:


    1.) The Two Lands of Ancient Egypt

    -covers the layout of Ancient Egypt (Upper and Lower Egypt)
    -flow of the Nile River
    -black lands (fertile soil) and red lands (barren soil)
    Keywords: Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, Nile River, Black Lands, Red Lands


    2.) Society & Social Structure of Ancient Egypt
    -covers the social hierarchy (Pharaoh, Viziers/Priests/Nobles, Scribes, Merchants/Craftspeople, and Peasants/Servants)
    -description of daily life and society
    -influential pharaohs like Menes, Hatshepsut, and Ramses II
    Keywords: Pharaoh, bureaucracy, vizier


    3.) The Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
    -Ancient Egypt is divided into the three time periods (the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom)
    -significant events highlighted that occurred in each period. (Pyramids of Giza built during the beginning of the Old Kingdom)
    Keywords: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, dynasty, Pyramids of Giza


    4.) Mummification
    -description of the process in detail
    Keywords: Ka, amulets, canopic jars


    5.) Hieroglyphics & Hieratic Script
    -description of each writing style and their differences
    -the tools used to write
    -description of how the Rosetta Stone assisted with the translation of hieroglyphics
    Keywords: hieratic script, hieroglyphics, Rosetta Stone

    Unit 4: Ancient Israel

    Quick overview of topics covered in this resource include:
    1.) The History of Ancient Israel
    -description of 1,200 BC, when the Israelites first came to Canaan
    -How the Israelities established their nation - Solomon later becomes King and builds the First Temple in Jerusalem
    -after the death of King Solomon – kingdom splits into the northern and southern kingdoms
    Keywords / Power Words: Monotheism, prophets, nomad, Hebrews, Judaism


    2.) Migrating to Egypt & The Enslavement of the Israelites
    - describes how the drought caused the Israelites to migrate after an extreme scarcity of food
    -describes the enslavement in Egypt by a pharaoh until Moses frees them


    3.) History of Judaism
    -description of how it developed among ancient Hebrews, that eventually became a world religion
    -describes how it later influenced Christian and Islamic religions of today
    Keywords: First Temple, The Torah


    4.) The Wisdom of King Solomon
    -description of his reign over Israel during their Golden Age
    -how he composed songs and proverbs
    -great achievements, such as building the temple in Jerusalem
    Keywords to include: The First Temple


    5.) The Promised Land
    -description of the land of Canaan
    -area was rich in natural resources

    Unit 5: Ancient India

    1.) The Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India
    -Describes lifestyle, society, and inventions (drainage system, iron plow, and Sanskirt writing system)
    -Describes how the winter and summer monsoons (seasonal winds) impacted their farming
    -(also known as Harappan Civilization or Period)
    -Describes the four major varnas (social categories) in Aryan society role in economy and daily life, also building around a river valley similar to Ancient Mesopotamia’s Fertile Crescent)
    Keywords: Sanskirt, Aryans, monsoon


    2.) The Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama
    -Describes his upbringing (born a prince) and his awareness of the pain of others compared to his privileged existence.
    -His quest for enlightenment (sitting under the bodhi tree and meditation) becoming awakened
    -What he learned and his teachings
    -interesting/fun facts
    Keywords: Buddhism, Bodhi tree (fig tree)


    3.) Caste System In Ancient India
    -Description of the four major varnas (social categories) in Aryan society
    (Brahmin, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras) and what their daily lives consisted of
    -Describes Jati (how Caste is determined by birth)
    -Describes who the Untouchables were
    Keywords: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, Caste System, Untouchables


    4.) Hinduism and Buddhism: A Comparison
    -Describes the important components of Hinduism (karma, reincarnation, dharma, gods & goddesses)
    -Describes the important concepts of Buddhism
    -Compares and contrasts the two religions
    Keywords: reincarnation, karma, dharma, nirvana


    5.) Advancements in Ancient India
    -Contributions to astronomy
    - Documents the occurrences of eclipses, the Earth’s circumference, and even theories about gravitational pull.
    -Building of religious structures, pillars, stupas, and rock chambers
    Keywords: pillar, stupa, rock chamber, gravitational pull, astronomy

    Unit 6: Ancient China

    Quick overview of topics covered in this resource include:
    1.) Ancient China Civilization: Dynasties & History
    -Contains overview of Ancient China's history and description of dynasties.
    -Xia Dynasty - describes how little information was recorded during this time period
    -Shang Dynasty -describes the Bronze Age and first recorded history
    -Golden Age description during the Zhou Dynasty - philosophers and great thinkers such as Confucius, Laozi, and Mencius
    -Qin Dynasty, describes political period and Legalism
    Keywords: Legalism, Golden Age, Bronze Age, Huang River Valley, Dynasties


    2.) The Bronze Age of Ancient China
    -describes when it began and the types of materials used to create tools, weapons, decorative items, etc. that were created.
    -description of spiritual beliefs and focus during this time – communicating with oracle bones / taotie masks to ward off evil spirits.
    Keywords: bronze casting, oracle bones, taotie masks

    3.) The Great Wall of China
    -describes how it was designed to stop northern invaders (Mongols) from invading
    -describes structure and length, facts
    -describes how it was successful in keeping invaders out but many workers died while creating the wall
    -compares to other past and present “walls” in society 
    Keywords: Great Wall, laborer, watch tower, beacon towers, and fortresses

    4.) The Silk Road
    -describes the routes and how traders used it
    -Chinese merchants exported silk, spices, tea, and other goods
    -describes the hazards that traders faced along the way (dangers of robbers, bad weather, illness, lack of water)
    -How goods were transported (in caravans)
    -The cultural impact that the Silk Road had to Ancient China (New religions were discovered: Buddhism movements ) New technologies and other useful information discussed and traded
    Keywords: caravan, silk, Zhang Qian

    5.) Ancient and Contemporary Philosophies: Confucianism and Daoism
    Describes Confucius and his beliefs and values (education and self-improvement)
    -reinforced The Mandate of Heaven belief
    -Describes his book The Analects and some of his famous quotes
    -Describes Daoism and the teachings of Laozi
    -Famous sayings of Laozi from Tao Te Ching
    -Compares and contrasts the two philosophies
    Keywords: The Analects, The Mandate of Heaven, Daoism, Confucius, Confucianism

    Unit 7: Ancient Greece

    Quick overview of topics covered in this resource include:
    1.) The Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations of Ancient Greece
    -Describes timelines, locations, and a brief overview of history of the two civilizations
    Minoan Civilization (2700-1450 BC) on the Island of Crete
    -Bronze Age Civilization
    Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1100 BC) monarchies built on hills
    -Comparison to past civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, China)
    -Describes Ancient Greece landscape – located on three bodies of water (Mediterranean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Aegean Sea)
    Keywords: Minoan, Mycenaean, monarchies, Bronze Age Civilization


    2.) The Dark Ages Describes daily life during the Dark Ages – Economy and society falling apart after the Bronze Age.
    -Describes what might have caused the collapse
    -Describes why historians referred to this period as the Dark Ages


    3.) Ancient Greek Olympics
    -Describes how it was a series of athletic competitions among city-states.
    -held every four years, known as an “Olympiad”
    -describes the Ancient Greek Olympic sports (chariot racing, discus, javelin, etc.)
    -provides a comparison with present day Olympics
    Keywords: Olympiad, Olympic Games, chariot


    4.) Daily Life in Athens
    -Describes daily life and structure of society for Athenians and City-States (Polis)
    -Describes Athenian Government in 500 BC
    -Describes political ideas and forward ways of thinking
    Keywords: Polis, democracy, Athenian Assembly, oligarchy, democracy


    5.) Spartan Warriors and the Peloponnesian War -Description of how Spartans were trained at an early age in the military (taken from their family and sent away to become soldiers)
    -Physical fitness seen as highly important
    -Forward thinking in some aspects – Spartan women were educated and had rights of owning property.
    -Demonstrates contrast, they were also barbaric and had a high slave population
    Keywords: helots, ephors

    Unit 8: Ancient Rome

    Quick overview of topics covered in this resource include:

    1.) The Roman Republic & Daily Life

    -Built on seven hills - Latins first came 1,000 BC, Rome was founded in 753 BC and became a Republic in 509 BC

    -describes influences (Greeks and Etruscans)

    -excelled with military and rose to power

    -describes how they were able to maintain control and rule Italy

    Keywords: Republic, Confederation, Triumvirate (during collapse)

    2.) The Social Hierarchy of Ancient Rome

    -Describes the hierarchy (Senators, Nobles & Patricians, Plebeians, Freedmen, and Slaves), including the two chief executive officers in Roman Republic (Consuls, Praetors)

    Keywords: plebeians, consuls, praetors

    3.) Roman Law and Its Influences

    -Overview of system of government and laws

    -describes how their ideas about laws and government influences our legal system today.

    Keywords: Twelve Tables, Law of Nations, Roman Constitution, checks and balances

    4.) The Punic Wars

    -Overview of the First, Second, and Third Punic Wars

    -Describes Hannibal Barca of Carthage and what made him an effective leader (great military strategist of all time, crossing of the Alps, the creativity of using war elephants)

    Keywords: Punic Wars

    5.) The Roman Empire -Describes how it was a period of great growth, wealth and trade (however, there was still an enormous disparity between rich and poor.)

    -Describes daily life, entertainment, expansion, economy

    Keyword: Pax Romana

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    You may also enjoy:

    Ancient Civilizations (Entire) Curriculum

    Ancient Civilizations Interactive Notebook BUNDLE

    Ancient Rome Interactive Notebook

    Ancient Rome STEM

    Ancient Greece Interactive Notebook

    Ancient Greece STEM

    Ancient China - Interactive Notebook

    Ancient China - STEM Challenges

    Ancient Israel - STEM Challenge

    Ancient India - Interactive Notebook

    Ancient Mesopotamia - Interactive Notebook

    Ancient Egypt - Interactive Notebook

    Ancient Israel Unit - Interactive Notebook

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    All rights reserved by author. Permission to copy for single classroom use only. Electronic distribution limited to single classroom use only. (unless you purchase the multiple license)

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    Total Pages
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    Answer Key
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    Teaching Duration
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