Introducing and using emotions (like happy, excited, annoyed, surprised) and "states of being" (like busy, tired, hungry, and sick) can be done by asking your students "How are you today?" at the beginning of classes, and allowing them to pick from the words shown on this poster. With beginning students, I ask questions like, "Who is hungry?" (in Chinese, naturally) and point to the word hungry on the poster. I then talk with them about how hungry they are, who else is hungry, what they want to eat because they are hungry, and so on.
NOTE: the photo of a red-background poster is my own final, printed, with student drawings added. This item includes all the words (in pinyin, characters, and English) and the headings (你今天怎么样？and Use your Chinese powers for good, not evil.). You will need to invite your students to sketch if you wish to include that in your own poster.
The poster also becomes a resource for students when they are calling words to mind or seek a description during class stories and discussions. I do not imagine that the poster will help them acquire the characters necessarily, since there is also pinyin showing on the poster, but as something to consult during their own writing, it may be helpful to see the characters. Introducing these words by sound and meaning allows me later on to show them in reading in characters.
In my classroom, I also have students sketch a picture of each emotion to help visualize it (and to make the poster more fun to look at!).
This PDF file is a color document to be printed on 14 sheets of 8.5 by 11 inch paper. The font size range is small enough that viewing across a large classroom might be too far away. The files can also be printed smaller than 100% and made into booklets for students to flip through, or displayed on a projection screen. In this item, I also have included a jpg file of how my finished poster looks (with student drawings included) as an idea for involving your students in finishing the poster. However, the file can be printed and used as is. The file has Terry Waltz's TOP system of pinyin (using blue, green, black, and red for tone colors), but it can also be printed in black and white instead if you prefer not to print in color.
You may want to remind students that these are not okay to use as insults for classmates!