These engaging activities examine several different causes and effects of Columbus' infamous 1492 journey across the Atlantic. First, students analyze the 7 different "motives of exploration" for Spain and Columbus. Second, they read primary source accounts of the murder, torture, rape and enslavement Columbus and his men wrote about doing to the Natives they encountered, and answer thought provoking questions about morality and society. Next, students learn about the Columbian Exchange (the trade between the "Old" and "New" World after 1492). They always enjoy guessing where each food, plant, animal, or trade good originated, and I included an answer key for you so you can dramatically reveal the correct answers. Finally, students learn about the devastating effects of measles and smallpox on Natives, and speculate how history could have been different had these viruses played a different role. I always have great discussion about this as a class afterward.