City States in Mesopotamia
I. Geography of the Fertile Crescent
1) Geography of the Fertile Crescent
a) A dry region that lies an arc of land that provides some of the best framing in Southwest Asia.
b) Fertile Plains are part of ______________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ and Mesopotamia lies between them. Mesopotamia is a _________________ which in Greek means ________________________________.
c) The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded Mesopotamia at least once a year. as flood water receded, it _______________________________________________
2) Environmental Challenges
a) People first started to settle and farm in __________________________________ people called the___________________________.
b) There were three disadvantages. First ___________________________________
_______________________________________________. Second ______________ _______________________________________________________ and third _____ _____________________________________________________________
3) Creating Solutions
a) To provide water they dug ___________________________________________.
b) Sumerians traded with the peoples of the mountains. They traded _____________
II. Sumerians Create City States
1) Five characteristics set Sumer apart from earlier human societies: ________________
a) The cities shared the same culture, they developed their own governments. Each city and the surrounding land it controlled formed a ________________________
b) Farmers believed that the success of their crops depended on blessing form the gods. Ziggurats acted not only as a place of worship but also it was like ________ _________________
2) Monarchs takes control
a) After 3000 B.C. wars between cities became more frequent. In time military leaders became rulers or monarchs. These rulers usually passed their power on to their sons, who eventually passed it on to their heirs. Such a series of rulers from a singe family is called _________________________________
3) As cities grew population and trade expended, the Sumerians came into contact with other peoples, and their ideas. This process of new ideas or a product spreading from one culture to another is called ___________________________________
III. Sumerian Culture
1) A religion of many gods
a) The belief in many gods is called ______________________ Sumerians believed in roughly 3,000 gods. They also expected little help from the gods after death.
2) Life in Sumerian Society
a) The levels of social society in the Sumerian culture ranked as: _______________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
b) The social class affected the lives of both men and women. In the Sumerian society women could pursue most of the occupations of city life, from merchant to farmer to artisan.
3) Sumerian science and technology
a) Sumerians invented: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
b) In order to erect city walls and buildings, plan irrigation system and survey flooded fields they needed arithmetic and geometry. They developed __________
IV. The First Empire Builders
1) About 2350 B.C. a conqueror named Sargon defeated city-states of Sumer. By taking control of both northern and southern Mesopotamia, Sargon created the world’s first empire. Empire is a __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2) Babylonian Empire reached its peak during the reign of ___________________, from 1792 B.C to 1750 B.C.
a) The most enduring legacy of Samurai’s is the __________________________ __________________________________________________________________
3) Hamurabi’s Code
a) Samurai’s recognized that a single, uniform code would help to unify the diverse groups within his empire. He therefore ___________________________ __________________________________________________________________
b) The code lists 282 specific laws dealing with _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
c) Despite severity Hammurabi’s code carried forward important ideas in Mesopotamian civilization. It reinforced ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________