Through this lesson students work in groups to build a classroom pyramid. They are given an engineering puzzle that asks them to move a theoretical 5000lb block across the desert.
The lesson helps the students understand that while the tools were basic, the ideas were not, and that the Ancient Egyptians had a strong understanding of math and science, and figure out how to best reduce friction with the materials that they had.
This is a lesson that even years after completing it, students still come back and talk about. Very energetic, very fun, and very rigorous.