Cold War Outline

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The Cold War

I. Troubled Peace 1945 – 1955

A. Internationalism:
1. World War II ended U.S. isolationism
a. internationalism became the new U.S. foreign policy

B. United Nations{1945}:
1. U.S. becomes active and leading member of the United Nations

II. Expansion and Containment

A. Soviet Bloc:
1. 1946- Soviet Union turns Eastern European nations into a “bloc”
of Soviet satellites
a. communist dictatorships established in each country
*b. creates the atmosphere for the Cold War

B. Iron Curtain Speech{1946}:
1. Winston Churchill compares nations under Soviet control to
living behind an iron curtain
a. warns of Soviet expansion and threat to world peace

C. Containment:
*1. policy to prevent the spread of communism during the Cold War

D. Truman Doctrine:
1. U.S. guarantees help to any country fighting communism
(containment)

E. Greece and Turkey:
1. both countries in danger of communist takeover
a. U.S. therefore gives $600 million in military and economic
aid (containment)





F. Marshall Plan{1947-1950}:
1. U.S. gives $12 billion to help rebuild Europe
a. hoped to prevent spread of communism

G. Berlin Airlift{1948}:
1. Soviets blockaded West Berlin

2. U.S. and Britain therefore airlifted food and supplies to West
Berlin
a. risked war with Soviets and Soviet bloc

H. Collective Security:
*1. policy whereby America formed military alliances for common
defense against communist aggression

I. NATO{1949}:
1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
a. western democracies form a military alliance against Russia
and the Soviet bloc
b. an attack on one member would be considered an attack on
all members

III. Containment in Asia

A. U.S. and China:
1. between 1945 to 1949 the U.S. gives $2 billion to help the Chinese
Nationalists defeat the Communists
a. 1949 - Communists come to power

B. Soviets and Atomic Bomb{1949}:
1. Soviet Union successfully tests Atomic Bomb
a. American spies helped Soviets develop bomb








C. Korean War{1950-1953}:
1. Communist North Korea invades South Korea

2. United Nations votes to assist South Korea
a. U.N. forces led by General Douglas MacArthur

3. China enters war when MacArthur crosses the Yalu River
a. U.N. forces temporarily pushed back

*4. 38th Parallel:
a. boundary between North and South Korea
b. war ended in stalemate that exists today

IV. Cold War at Home

A. Loyalty Review Board
1. investigates government workers suspected of being
communists
b. required government workers to sign loyalty oaths

B. House Un-American Activities Committee{HUAC}:
1. authorized to investigate communist activities in government
a. cast doubt on innocence of accused who took the “the 5th”
{the right against self-incrimination}

C. Rosenberg Case{1951}:
1. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg passed Atomic Bomb secrets to the
Soviets
a. both convicted and executed for treason
b. increased U.S. fear of communism

D. J. Robert Oppenheimer:
1. scientist who led the Manhattan Project {Atomic Bomb}

2. Oppenheimer later opposed building of the Hydrogen Bomb:
a. therefore labeled as “disloyal” by the government




E. Senator Joseph McCarthy:
1. recklessly accused thousands of people of being communists
a. supplied no evidence

2. McCarthyism:
a. the act of accusing a person of serious crimes while
producing no evidence
b. the main objective to damage a person’s reputation and cast
doubt on their innocence

V. Containment and Consensus: 1945-1960

A. John Foster Dulles:
1. Secretary of State under President Eisenhower who favored
a strong and aggressive policy against communism

B. Brinkmanship:
1. belief that a nation could go to the brink of war without actually
getting into war
a. the enemy would back down when it got too close to war

C. Massive Retaliation:
1. belief that the threat of total destruction with nuclear weapons
would stop communist aggression

D. Domino Theory:
1. belief that if one country fell to communism its neighbors would
fall like “dominoes”

E. SEATO:
1. Southeast Asian Treaty Organization:
a. established to contain communism in Asia

F. Hydrogen Bomb:
1. by 1950’s U.S. and the Soviet Union successfully test Hydrogen
Bomb
a. hundreds of times more powerful than A-Bomb
b. increased the chance of nuclear annihilation


G. U-2 Incident{1960}:
1. Soviets shoot down American U-2 spy plane
a. pilot captured alive

*2. U-2 Incident increased distrust between Soviets and America
a. intensified Cold War

VI. China Policy

A. Taiwan:
1. 1949- Chinese Communists come to power
a. Nationalists escape to island of Taiwan
b. U.S. recognizes Taiwan as legitimate government of “all”
China

VII. Middle East Problems

A. Eisenhower Doctrine{1957}:
1. U.S. offers military and financial aid to any Middle East country
threatened by communism
a. Middle East oil important to the world economy

VIII. Soviet Threat Continues

A. Polish and Hungarian Uprisings{1956}:
1. both countries revolt against Soviet domination

2. Nikita Khrushchev the new Soviet leader
a. used tanks to end the revolts

B. Warsaw Pact:
*1. the communist version of NATO
a. all communist countries in Eastern Europe forced to join

C. Sputnik{1957}:
1. Russians successfully launch first satellite to orbit the Earth
a. increased U.S. fear of communism
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Cold War Outline
Cold War Outline
Cold War Outline
Cold War Outline