A document-based question (DBQ) is an opportunity for students to engage in rich historical thinking. A DBQ allows students to analyze challenging primary sources in order to gain historical insight. A thought-provoking essential question guides their inquiry. Developing a DBQ can be difficult because it requires the instructor to locate (and sometimes adapt slightly) sources that are age and topic-appropriate, as well as historically authentic. I have selected and, when necessary, slightly adapted 6 different "documents" around the essential question: "How did the vast Roman Empire maintain control and unity?" Each source has background information and guiding questions. This kit also contains information for teachers, an assessment rubric, DBQ key points, a chart for student notes, and sources used for your reference. Developing a DBQ takes hours so allow my time investment to benefit your students!