This 31-question/answer worksheet is designed to accompany Episode 3, When Knowledge Conquered Fear, of the documentary television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson and follows up Cosmos: A Personal Voyage presented by Carl Sagan. The episode begins with Tyson describing how pattern recognition manifested in early civilization as using astronomy and astrology to predict the passing of the seasons, including how the passage of a comet was often taken as an omen. Tyson continues to explain that the origin of comets only became known in the 20th century due to the work of Jan Oort and his hypothesis of the Oort cloud. Tyson then continues to relate the collaboration between Edmond Halley and Isaac Newton in the last part of the 17th century in Cambridge. The collaboration would result in the publication of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, the first major work to describe the laws of physics in mathematical terms, despite objections and claims of plagiarism from Robert Hooke and financial difficulties of the Royal Society of London. Tyson explains how this work challenged the prevailing notion that God had planned out the heavens, but would end up influencing many factors of modern life, including space flight.
Tyson further describes Halley's contributions including determining Earth's distance to the sun, the motion of stars and predicting the orbit of then-unnamed Halley's Comet using Newton's laws. Tyson contrasts these scientific approaches to understanding the galaxy compared to what earlier civilizations had done, and considers this advancement as mankind's first steps into exploring the universe. The episode ends with an animation of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies' merging based on the principles of Newton's laws. Key vocabulary includes pattern recognition, intelligence, seasons, comets, Oort Cloud, asteroids, Jan Oort, astronomers, telescopes, Edmond Halley, navigation, Robert Hooke, cells, Hooke's Law, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton, ellipses, Principia, gravity, motion, calculus, space travel, magnetic field, diving bell, weather map, statistics, and solar system. Applies to science, astronomy, meteorology, physics, Earth science, mathematics, history and optics.