This is one of those activities that is child centered and goal-rich across domains: Fantasy and pretend play, experimenting with observed experience, aesthetic qualities of drama, gaining physical knowledge and social abilities.
Child centered goals of this lesson help the child:
To experience various art forms.
To participate with others to create shared drama.
To begin to appreciate the arts in relation to culture.
To connect the arts with other curricular areas.
To identify body parts by name and location.
To use tools skillfully, including implements for playing.
To develop a positive attitude toward their bodies.
To develop play skills, cooperate, and acquire rudimentary ideas of how services are exchanged
To show awareness of and concern for the rights and well-being of others
To exhibit skills such as collecting and analyzing data.
It uses props that are easily obtained and might already be available. There are also good children's 'doctor kits' available on the market if you wish.