Present History traces the development and decline of early African civilizations and kingdoms. This world-history presentation divides the study into the first African civilizations that include Egypt, Kush and Aksum; West African Trading Kingdoms which include Ghana, Mali and Songhai; and the Bantu migrations and the east coast trade centers that include Mogadishu, Mombasa and Kilwa. This unit of study includes the following vocabulary: Griots, Sahel, acculturation (cultural blending), Berbers, matrilineal, Timbuktu, Arabic, Atlantic slave trade, stateless society, Bantu migrations, Great Zimbabwe, Swahili, migration and push-pull factors. Essential questions include: Identify and understand the significance of the culture regions of Africa's first kingdoms. What role did trade play in the growth of these kingdoms? This presentation also includes thinking maps for organizing the early African regions and their characteristics. Find a student note guide on this presentation by searching "Early African Trading Empires Notes and Review."