Present History traces the development of early modern Europe from the rise of absolutism across the continent and the development of a constitutional monarchy in Britain to the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment. This world-history presentation includes readings on the rise of absolutism and Peter the Great's attempts at westernization in Russia, and it contrasts this with the struggle between British Parliament and the monarchy that ended with a constitutional monarchy. This presentation shows the causes and effects of the Scientific Revolution by including the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Bacon. This presentation also shows the causes and effects of the Enlightenment by including the ideas of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Smith, Rousseau, Locke and Mary Wollstonecraft. It also includes readings that show the challenges of Frederick the Great, Joseph II, and Catherine the Great in implementing enlightened despotism. Finally, this presentation shows how the Enlightenment influenced the American and French Revolutions and revolutions across Latin America. Essential questions include: Define and describe absolutism. Define and describe constitutional monarchy. Compare and contrast these two forms of government. Explain the importance of Russia's spatial location in Peter the Great's attempts to westernize Russia. Explain what "westernize" means. What was the significance of the Scientific Revolution? What effects did it have on early modern Europe? What were the causes of the Enlightenment? How did Enlightenment ideas spread? How did the key philosophes contribute to the Enlightenment? Explain "enlightened despotism." Find a student note guide on this presentation by searching "Early Modern Europe Reading Guide and Review."