This colorful and detailed PowerPoint and bundle explains the cause of earthquakes, the difference between magnitude (Richter Scale) and intensity (Mercalli Scale), how to triangulate an earthquake and the hazards associated with earthquakes.
Earthquakes are caused when a break in the Earth's surface builds pressure over time and then is suddenly released. The point of the actual movement below the surface is called the focus and the point directly above on the Earth's surface is called the epicenter. There are three types of seismic waves which travel differently through the Earth. This topic is discussed more in depth in the Earth's Interior bundle. The seismic waves can cause damage in the form of shaking, liquefaction, ground displacement, flooding, tsunamis, and fire.
Earthquakes are located by triangulation. The process of triangulation is explained in this bundle. The shaking on the surface can be measured using the Richter Scale (actual movement of Earth) or the Mercalli Scale (how the shaking is perceived by humans). One activity in the bundle has students practice with the Mercalli Scale to help locate epicenter.
The PowerPoint then continues with volcanoes. It covers types of lava, parts of a volcano, the three types of volcanoes, dormant vs. active volcanoes, hazards associated with volcanoes and volcanoes found in other places within our solar system.
Volcanoes are formed when magma rises to the Earth's surface. The type of magma/lava will determine the type of volcano which is formed. Lava that is very thin and high in iron will form a very different volcano than a lava which is thick, gaseous and lower in iron.
All volcanoes have the same basic features: vent, cone, crater, and magma chamber but the three types of volcanoes vary in size and height based on the magma associated with them. The three types of volcanoes are composite, shield and cinder cone.
Volcanoes do come with hazards which include the lava, pyroclastics, Nuée ardentes, lahars and toxic gases.
Volcanoes do exist in other locations in the solar system, such as Mars, Venus and Io. And we continue to look for more examples of this volcanic activity in our solar system.
Video links are embedded within the PowerPoint that explain earthquake triangulation and show examples of hazards from both earthquakes and volcanoes.
Included in the Earthquakes and Volcanoes Notes Bundle:
• PowerPoint: Earthquakes and Volcanoes
• PowerPoint Notes Handout: Earthquakes and Volcanoes
• Quiz: Earthquakes
• Quiz Key: Earthquakes
• Quiz: Volcanoes
• Quiz Key: Volcanoes
NOT INCLUDED, but available for purchase:
• Earthquakes - Mercalli Scale Activity