This Endings Bundle includes 16 pages:
Page 1: Endings I (_ff, _ll, _ss, _zz)
Page 2: Endings II (_ed, _ed(d), _ed (t), _ing)
Page 3: Endings III (_es & _s)
Page 4: Endings IV (_es & _ies)
Pages 5-15: Additional Word Study Resources
K/2 Word Study Scope and Sequence
Word Study Procedures
Word Study Day by Day Teacher’s Guide / Lesson Plans including independent and small group activities and games.
Word Study Student Sheet
Word Study Homework Agenda
Word Study Parent Letter
Page 16: answer key
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Word Ending Rules….Who knew?
Word endings have many functions. They can change words from singular to plural, from present tense to past tense, between parts of speech (noun to verb or visa versa).
Changing from Singular to Plural:
• Regular plurals are made by adding‘s’. Examples: dogs, horses, monkeys, cliffs.
• Plurals of words with a hissing ending (s, x, a, sh, ch, ss) are made by adding ‘es’. Examples: bonuses, boxes, fizzes, wishes, and misses.
• Nouns ending in a single ‘f’ plural change the ‘f’ to ‘v’ before adding ‘es’ to form the plural. Examples: loaf, loaves; wolf, wolves, shelf, shelves. Exception Examples: dwarfs, roofs, chiefs.
• Words ending in an ‘o’ preceded by a consonant usually end in suffix ‘es’ to form the plural. Examples: potato-es, volcano-es, torpedo-es. Exception examples: pianos, solos, Eskimos.
Changing from present to past tense:
• When the last sound in the word is unvoiced, then the “ed” will also be unvoiced. (“miss” and “slope” use no air to make the sound so missed and sloped will also use no air.) The “ed” sound will make the sound of “t” (missed /t/ and sloped /t/).
• When the last sound of the word is voiced, then the “ed” will also be voiced. (“turn” and “stray” uses some noise to make the sound) The “ed” will make the sound of”d” (turned /d/, strayed /d/).
• When the last sound in the word is “d” or “t” then the “ed”, will sound like /id/. (“tend” and “start” end in “d” and “t”) The “ed” will make the sound of “id” (tended /id/ and strated /id/).
• Short words ending in both a single vowel and a single consonant always double the last consonant before adding an ending) beginning with a vowel. Examples: pop, popped, popping; fat, fatter, fatten; spin, spinner, spinning.
o These base words are sometimes called 1,1,1 words because they have ONE vowel, ONE consonant after the vowel, and ONE syllable. Examples endings than can be used are: ed, es, ing, en, y, al, able and ible.
Other changes using endings:
• Do NOT double the final consonant when the base word has two vowels or two final consonants. Examples beef, beefy; leap, leaping, self, selfish; send, sending.
• Drop the final ’e’ from a root word before adding an ending beginning with a vowel, but keep it before a consonant ending. Examples: love, loving, lovely; taste, tasting, tasty; bubble, bubbling, bubbly: drive, driving, driver; rattle, rattled, rattling.
Note: Don't think about the spelling, only think about the final sound. For example, rough sounds like /ruf/. /f/ is unvoiced. Roughed is /ruft/.
Note: If you are not sure if a sound is voiced or unvoiced, place your hand on your throat when you say the sound. If it is voiced, you will feel a vibration. If it is unvoiced, you will feel nothing in your throat.