On July 4th, 1852, Frederick Douglass was invited by northern Abolitionists to speak in New York about the meaning of freedom in America. He refused to speak on July 4th, but gave a passionate 3-hour address the next day on July 5th. His speech caused quite a controversy. His audience, undoubtedly expecting to be congratulated for their liberal, abolitionist ways, were instead challenged to do more and warned of complacency. The entire speech is too much to tackle (it was 3 hours long!), but here it has been modified into a 2 page read without sacrificing its urgency or objective. After each paragraph, students pause to reflect and summarize Douglass' meaning in their own words. I have had fantastic discussions afterward about the speech and it relevance today.