The Aryan invasion of the subcontinent around 1,500 B.C.E. brought with it a new religion that featured a pantheon of gods that the Aryans worshiped through ritualism and with burnt sacrifices. Over the next thousand years, the religion matured, probably incorporating some elements of Harappan theology and certainly establishing a rigid social structure. Centuries later, Europeans would dub this five-tiered social structure "the caste system."
Source: Manu, The Law of Manu, in The Sacred Books of the East, vol. XXV, ed. F. Max Müller (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1886), pp. 12-14, 24.
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