History Channel's How the Earth Was Made is a wonderful documentary series about geology and earth science. In the episode titled "Birth of the Earth," the series presents evidence for the age of the earth and its early development. The episode is set up as a type of detective story, with evidence shown to back up hypotheses. The episode is available on YouTube
Topics include dating the age of the earth using meteorites, the formation of the moon, the first oceans and continents, the origin of life, and the development of earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere. Some early attempt to date the earth are described such as Bishop Ussher's Biblical chronology and Ernst Rutherford's application of radioactive dating to earth rocks.
Other topics include the impact theory of the moon's origin, the delivery of water and amino acids to the early earth via meteorites (Allende meteorites in particular), the oldest known rocks on earth (located in Hudson Bay, Canada), C.C. Patterson's dating of meteorites from Meteor Crater, Arizona, and the introduction of significant oxygen into earth's atmosphere after the evolution of photosynthetic cyanobacteria found as ancient coral-like growths known as stromatolites. Modern day stromatolites are also shown in Mexico.
In summary, this episode represents a nice overview of theories of the early earth and its development.