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Guide your students on their path to becoming excellent expository writers!
Together with Dr. Judith Hochman’s wonderful Writing Revolution System, this product is designed to help students fully understand the purpose and structure of a sentence and develop the ability to compose complex sentences that reflect extended thinking.
This bundled product includes oral examples for teacher modeling, in-class activities, and some homework assignments related to introducing the following concepts and goals of lessons 1.6-1.10:
Using conjunctions to connect words, phrases, and clauses helps make writing clear and linguistically rich. It also provides more information to the reader. Much of what students hear, read, and write in their everyday lives is couched in simple language and structures. But much of what they’re expected to read in school is linguistically complex. When confronted with complexity in literature, expository text, and original documents, students often have difficulty extracting the text’s meaning. Conjunction activities enable students to craft more complex sentences themselves. As they do so, they also develop the ability to understand such sentences when they encounter them in their reading.
- Develops the ability to write extended responses
- Checks student comprehension
- Develops analytical and deeper thinking
- Fosters close reading
- Develops the ability to craft linguistically complex sentences that use written rather than oral language conventions
- Enhances reading comprehension by familiarizing students with more complex syntax and sentence structure
- Provides a way to develop topic and concluding sentences
1. Write sentences using the conjunctions but, so, and because
2. Use subordinating conjunctions in the beginning or middle of sentences
3. Combine two or more sentences
4. Produce complex sentences using sentence starters
Most students don’t use subordinating conjunctions in their spoken language, so they may not know what some of these conjunctions mean or how to use them. If students encounter such constructions in their reading, that lack of familiarity can interfere with their comprehension. When students learn to use this kind of syntax in their own writing, they become better able to understand complex texts, and their oral language becomes more sophisticated as well. Once students learn to use subordinating conjunctions, they’ll also be able to write extended responses that are rich in complexity and content.
- Promotes the use of complex sentences
- Improves reading comprehension
- Enables students to vary sentence types
- Boosts vocabulary development
- Encourages close reading and references to text
- Checks student comprehension
- Enables students to extend their responses
- Provides a good option for topic and concluding sentences
1. Introduce the ten subordinating conjunctions that are most frequently used to begin written sentences
2. Produce complex sentences using subordinating conjunctions as sentence starters
3. Use subordinating conjunctions in the beginning or middle of sentences
4. Combine two or more sentences
5. Apply reading comprehension skills
Sentence combining is one of the most powerful strategies in writing instruction. Extensive research has found it to be the most effective way of teaching grammar. It also gives students greater control over syntax, which is the way words and sentences are put together and ordered.
- Effectively teaches grammar and usage
- Encourages students to produce more complex sentences
- Enables students to see various options for crafting sentences
- Exposes students to varied writing structures and enhances syntactic flexibility
- Helps students focus on what is important to include in a sentence
- Improves fluency in writing
1. Combine two short, declarative sentences using pronouns, commas, and conjunctions as needed
2. Produce complex sentences using sentence starters
In addition to sentence types and subordinating conjunctions, appositives are a third strategy that will help students compose complex and interesting topic sentences when they write paragraphs and compositions. Level 1 and younger students (below third or fourth grade) may have trouble grasping the concept of appositives. They may confuse them with relative clauses, which begin with who or which and include a verb. You’ll need to use your judgment about whether or not your students are ready to be introduced to appositives.
An appositive is a phrase that can be removed or covered up without making the entire sentence incomplete. An appositive defines or describes a person, place, or thing.
- Provides an effective strategy for creating topic and concluding sentences
- Enables students to vary sentence structure
- Enables students to include more information in a sentence and add complexity
- Improves reading comprehension
- Enables teachers to check for comprehension
- Encourages careful reading
- Familiarizes students with a form that is often seen in text and rarely heard in spoken language
1. Identify an appositive (noun phrase) in a sentence
2. Match a noun with the appositive that best describes it
Run-on sentences are an all too frequent problem in student writing. If your students have trouble with run-ons, try putting a run-on sentence on the board daily (preferably embedded in content or relating to a subject students already know something about). When you first start this routine, ask a student to read the sentence aloud, without pausing, and then ask the class what’s wrong with it. Discuss and correct the run-on sentence together.
1. Identify run-on sentences
2. Correct run-on sentences
3. Use subordinating conjunctions at the beginning or middle of sentences.
When they’re writing, students often assume that their reader has extensive prior knowledge of the subject matter they’re covering. Sentence expansion encourages students to think about what the reader knows already or may need, or want, to know to better understand the students’ writing. Using this approach, students are able to provide information with greater precision.
To prevent student confusion, remember to follow Hochman Method guidelines related to sentence expansion activities as per the manual.
- Enables students to anticipate what a reader needs to know and to provide
- Checks comprehension
- Enables students to craft written language structures
- Develops the ability to summarize When
1. Expand a sentence using two or three of the question words: who, what, when, where, why, how
**Since the concepts and goals of the lessons in this bundle are challenging, it is recommended that the work be completed together in class with teacher guidance.
Please Note: This product has been designed as a complementary activity to be used along with the full Writing Revolution Hochman Method. Before printing, teachers can choose between two different types of handwriting lines.
Want more products like this one based on a specific unit or theme? Please leave me a comment in the “Q&A” section or e-mail me at CrystalPrismProducts@gmail.com and I can tailor a product to meet your needs.
All of my products are purposely designed to be simple and "crystal clear" - created without an abundance of distracting borders, images, or fonts so that students can better focus on the learning activity at hand.