The year is 1540. You are attending a conference held in Madrid, Spain to decide what advice to give Charles V, grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella. Charles V has acquired vast holdings in the New World thanks in large part to Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the Aztecs and the Incas respectively. But with this new territory comes questions, the most pivotal being: How shall Spain rule the new land and people they have conquered? Students will work in groups to understand their role and then discuss relevant issues to answer this question.