This powerpoint presentation covers Topic 4.4 in the IB Biology curriculum. Specifically, it covers the basics of PCR, gel electrophoresis and genetic engineering (see below learning objectives)
Each slide is labelled with the specific learning objective and animation/video links are provided in the slide notes. The slides are formatted to print well for handouts or revision and I can provide a pdf version upon request.
As always, please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvements. These are always a work in progress!
**IB Biology Learning Objectives:
4.4.1 – Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA.
4.4.2 – State that, in gel electrophoresis, fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to size.
4.4.3 – State that gel electrophoresis of DNA is used in DNA profiling.
4.4.4 – Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic investigations.
4.4.5 – Analyse DNA profiles to draw conclusions about paternity or forensic investigations.
4.4.6 – Outline three outcomes of sequencing the complete human genome.
4.4.7 – State that, when genes are transferred between species, the amino acid sequence of polypeptides translated from them is unchanged because the genetic code is universal.
4.4.8 – Outline a basic technique used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell (bacterium, yeast or other cell), restriction enzymes (endonucleases) and DNA ligase.
4.4.9 – State two examples of the current uses of genetically modified crops or animals
4.4.10 – Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic modification.
4.4.11 – Define clone.
4.4.12 – Outline a technique for cloning using differentiated animal cells.
4.4.13 – Discuss the ethical issues of therapeutic cloning in humans.