This 21-slide powerpoint presentation covers 'Topic 5.4 - Cladistics' in the 2016 IB Biology curriculum. Each slide includes the specific learning objective as well as key vocabulary that students should note. The topic has been divided into two sections:
A - Clades & Cladograms
B - Reclassification
The presentation itself contains minimal information as it is intended to be used with teacher guidance. They are also formatted to be visually pleasing and to print well for handouts or revision. Please see the preview file for an idea of the slide aesthetic and level of detail.
As always, please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvements. These are always a work in progress!
U1: A clade is a group of organisms that have evolved from a common ancestor.
U2: Evidence for which species are part of a clade can be obtained from the base sequences of a gene or the corresponding amino acid sequence of a protein.
U3: Sequence differences accumulate gradually so there is a positive correlation between the number of differences between two species and the time since they diverged from a common ancestor.
U4: Traits can be analogous or homologous.
U5: Cladograms are tree diagrams that show the most probable sequence of divergence in clades.
U6: Evidence from cladistics has shown that classifications of some groups based on structure did not correspond with the evolutionary origins of a group or species.
A1: Cladograms including humans and other primates.
A2: Reclassification of the figwort family using evidence from cladistics.
S1: Analysis of cladograms to deduce evolutionary relationships.