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In this lesson, students will take on the perspective of a pathogen with a mission to infiltrate and infect a human body. Students will encounter and document the body’s three lines of defense in order to devise a counter plan. By the end of this activity, students will understand how the immune system works to fight infection.
This resource includes 30 student pages + a teacher lesson guide and an answer key.
Students will analyze data to create a model of the immune system.
Disciplinary Core Ideas:
LS1.A: Structure and Function
All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)
In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)
Science and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena.
Construct, analyze, and/or interpret graphical displays of data and/or large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
Developing and Using Models
Create models to explain and/or predict scientific phenomena, processes, or relationships. Evaluate the merits and limitations of models. Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change
Structure and Function
Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.
This resource is part of a storyline designed to target the following Next Generation Science Standards:
*Unit material may not fully assess every standard listed below.
MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.]
MS-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways the parts of cells contribute to the function. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.]
MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples could include the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanism of one body system independent of others. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.]
MS-PS1-3 Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.]
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