This is a zipped file consisting of three sections: 3 complete lesson plans; instructional material; and assessments including a rubric.
NOTE: A copy of the book Two-Minute Mysteries (Sobol, 1967) is necessary for the completion of Lesson Plan 2.
This learning segment is scaffolded with each successive lesson allowing the student to work more independently on slightly more difficult material. In Lesson 1, students begin in a whole group with guidance and redirecting as necessary. Students infer from a sentence or two on everyday ideas and then from images, orally and with some writing. Lesson 2 requires student to practice the skill of making inferences from narrative text, with their group members as resources. Responses are written. In Lesson 3, students practice comprehension of poetry by making inferences, again with group members as resources.
Cooper and associates (2012) identified five important strategies expert readers utilize including: 1) Inferencing; 2) Monitoring/clarifying; 3) Identifying important information; 4) Generating and answering questions; and 5) Summarizing and synthesizing (p. 126). This learning segment focuses on the first of the strategies – inferencing, specifically, making inferences from literature. Inferencing – the process of judging, concluding, or reasoning from some given information” (Cooper et al., 2012, p. 128) – is an essential literacy strategy for constructing meaning. Even very young readers make inferences when reading. A kindergarten student understands if a text states “Sue had a big smile”, she was happy. This kindergartner synthesized information with his/her prior knowledge to construct meaning.
Common Core State Standards (CCSS) identify the requirement of learning how to infer from text at the 5th grade level: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL (Reading Literature).5.1 “Quote accurately from a text when explaining what a text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text” (CCSS, 2012). It is important to note this learning segment focuses on drawing inferences from the text. Later lessons will focus on quoting accurately.
The learning targets (LT) for this learning segment are essentially the same throughout. This particular group of students consists of several students with reading levels well below grade level. In order to support their learning needs, and the needs of all students in the class, I made the professional decision to focus on the same LT throughout the segment allowing students time to learn and practice the essential literacy strategy. The LT for Lesson 1 – I am using evidence and experience/knowledge on the topic, so I can make a logical inference; and the LT for Lesson 2 and 3 – I am using evidence from the text and experience/knowledge on the topic, so I can make a logical inference about the text varies only slightly. In the first lesson, students infer from images as a precursor for inferring from text. Therefore, the LT from Lesson 1 excludes the word “text”. The use of an I am, So I can statement makes the LT concrete by identifying what students are doing and why they are doing it. In addition, the student-friendly language makes the LT more accessible to students.