Present History traces the rise of a new European civilization following the fall of the western Roman empire in 476. This world-history presentation defines and characterizes the middle ages. It includes the rise and decline of the feudal system, the Byzantine Empire, the power struggle between the popes and the emperors, the Magna Carta, missionaries, heretics, the Inquisition, speaking in the vernacular, the revival of trade, guilds, Alexius I and the Crusades, the Reconquista, the Bubonic Plague, and the Hundred Years War. Essential questions include: What elements make up the emerging European civilization following the fall of Rome in 476? Who is Charlemagne and what role did his Carolingian Empire play in the development of this new civilization? What were the consequences of the division of this empire? Explain the workings of feudalism and the manor system. Explain what is meant by Russia's "unique spatial location." What were the consequences of agricultural innovations? Describe Medieval society and its "religious enthusiasm." What did the revival of trade lead to? What role did trade play in the spread of the Black Death. Explain the importance of the 100 Years War as a turning point in European history. Find a student note guide on this presentation by searching "Medieval Europe Notes and Review."