This presentation traces the formation of four kingdoms mostly from the 10th century into the 12th century. It gives a brief but in depth overview of some of the major developments and personalities of the period. Some major themes include the formation of the Holy Roman Empire and their Emperors' constant struggles with the Popes for control, major developments in art and literature throughout Europe, the Norman Invasion and the consequences for England, the rise of the French monarchy, and the multicultural history of Spain. The presentation comes complete with notes beautiful illustrations, interesting history as well as Youtube videos embedded in the presentation. Enjoy and ask if you have any questions.