This zip file contains many different activities (61 pages of student handouts and 2 PowerPoints with a total of (114 slides) which can be used to compose a unit for AP Biology or advanced Biology students on Mendelian Genetics and Advanced Genetics Crosses. Mendel's Laws as well as the associated terminology and crosses introduce the unit. Many other concepts are addressed including but not limited to; probability, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, blood group inheritance, lethal alleles, sex-linked crosses and the some influences of environment on phenotype as specified in the AP Biology curriculum framework. The mathematics of chi square is included on the corn genetics activity. This packet of materials contains 5 worksheets with PowerPoint keys, several practice problem packets with keys and three lab activities. A comprehensive examination and key for the unit is also included.
While these lessons were originally designed for my AP Biology curriculum, they can be adapted to any advanced level Biology program.
This lesson packet contains a listing of the learning goals, common core learning standards, NGSS learning standards and the AP Biology performance indicators addressed in these materials. These are included in the packet and at the end of the description of this lesson.
The components of this lesson package can easily be displayed to students using and LCD projector and may be readily modified into formats facilitating smartboard technology. Most documents are included in both word doc or docx as well as pdf format to allow editing for specific teacher needs. The learning guides/assignments contain links to online resources to support student learning.
Answer keys are included for most items with the exception of one lab activity and portions of lab activities where student answers may vary.
The specific contents of the learning package includes the following items (the page count for these items are actual student handouts as answer key page counts are not included):
-- Classical Genetics and Environmental Influences Objectives (3 pages) in word and pdf format
-- Basic Mendelian Genetics Completion Cloze notes with learning goals (8 pages) in word and pdf format
-- PowerPoint to accompany the Basic Mendelian Genetics Completion notes (55 slides)
-- Beyond Mendelian Genetics Completion Cloze Notes with learning goals (9 pages) in word and pdf format
-- PowerPoint to accompany the Beyond Mendelian Genetics Completion notes (56 slides)
-- Genetics Practice Problems with answers (17 pages) in word and pdf format
-- Mendelian Genetics Review quiz with answers (23 questions/4 pages) (pdf format only)
-- Advanced Genetics Practice Exam with answers (55 questions/5 pages) (pdf format only)
-- Genetics Worksheet One (Law of Dominance) (1 page/8 questions) in word and pdf format
-- Genetics Worksheet One answer key in PowerPoint (18 slides)
-- Genetics Worksheet Two (Mendelian crosses) (12 questions/1 page) in word and pdf format
-- Genetics Worksheet Two answer key in PowerPoint (20 slides)
-- Genetics Worksheet Three (codominance and incomplete dominance) (5 questions/1 page) in word and pdf format
-- Genetics Worksheet Three answer key in PowerPoint (5 slides)
-- Genetics Worksheet Four (Blood and Sex-Linked crosses) (7 problems/1 page) in word and pdf format
-- Genetics Worksheet Four answer key in PowerPoint (22 slides)
-- Drosophila Simulation and Patterns of Heredity Lab (7 pages) in word and pdf format (key not included)
-- Corn Genetics Lab (requires purchased corn sample results from a dihybrid cross) (4 pages) in word and pdf format (key included)
-- Classical Genetics and Environmental Influences Exam and Key (40 multiple choice questions/7 pages) in word and pdf
-- Helpful Animations and Video List (1 page) in word and pdf with interactive links
-- Classical Genetics and Environmental Influences Objectives (3 pages) in word and pdf format
Classical Genetics and Environmental Influences Objectives
BIG IDEA #3: LIVING SYSTEMS STORE, RETRIEVE, TRANSMIT AND RESPOND TO INFORMATION ESSENTIAL TO LIFE PROCESSES.
Enduring understanding 3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
Essential knowledge 3.A.2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.
LO 3.11 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data sets
to support the claim that heritable information is passed from
one generation to another
Essential knowledge 3.A.3: The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides
an understanding of the pattern of passage
(transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.
LO 3.12 The student is able to construct a representation that connects
the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring.
LO 3.13 The student is able to pose questions about ethical, social or medical
issues surrounding human genetic disorders.
LO 3.14 The student is able to apply mathematical routines to determine
Mendelian patterns of inheritance provided by data sets.
Essential knowledge 3.A.4: The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot
be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.
LO 3.15 The student is able to explain deviations from Mendel’s model of
the inheritance of traits.
LO 3.16 The student is able to explain how the inheritance patterns of
many traits cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics.
LO 3.17 The student is able to describe representations of an
appropriate example of inheritance patterns that cannot be explained
by Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits.
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and
their interactions possess complex properties
Enduring understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Essential knowledge 4.C.2: Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.
LO 4.23 The student is able to construct explanations of the influence of
environmental factors on the phenotype of an organism.
LO 4.24 The student is able to predict the effects of a change in
an environmental factor on the genotypic expression of the phenotype.
Classical Genetics and Environmental Influences Learning Goals
Upon the completion of this unit the student will be able to:
1. list several features of Mendel's methods that contributed to his success.
2. list and explain Mendel's laws of heredity
3. use a Punnett square to predict the results of a monohybrid cross and state the
phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F2 generation.
4. distinguish between genotype and phenotype; heterozygous and homozygous;
dominant and recessive.
5. explain how a testcross can be used to determine if a dominant phenotype is
homozygous or heterozygous.
6. state Mendel's law of independent assortment.
7. use a Punnett square to predict the results of a dihybrid cross and state
the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F2 generation.
8. using the laws of probability, predict the results of dihybrid and
9. state several; examples of incomplete dominance and explain this it is
not evidence for the blending theory of inheritance.
10. explain how the phenotypic expression of the heterozygote is affected
by complete dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance.
11. describe the inheritance of the ABO blood system and explain why the IA
and IB alleles are said to be codominant.
12. describe a simple model for polygenic inheritance, and explain why
most polygenic characters are described in quantitative terms.
13. describe how environmental conditions can influence the phenotypic
expression of a character.
14. given a simple family pedigree, deduce the genotypes for some of the
15. describe the inheritance of sickle cell disease.
16. explain how a lethal recessive gene can be maintained in a population.
17. explain why consanguinity increases the probability of homozygosity
18. explain why lethal dominant genes are much more rare than lethal
19. give an example of a late-acting lethal dominant in humans and explain
how it can escape elimination.
20. describe sex determination in humans.
21. describe the inheritance of a sex-linked gene such as color-blindness
22. explain why a recessive sex-linked gene is always expressed in human males.
23. explain the difference between deletion, translocation, and inversion mutations.
24. explain why cytoplasmic genes are not inherited in a Mendelian fashion.
25. list and discuss some examples of environmental influences on phenotype.
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.
Common Core State Standards Connections:
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
WHST.9-12.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.