Identifying Devices of Persuasion and Methods of Appeal:
Middle Ages: A Call of the French Nobility to Join a Crusade by Pope Urban II, Speech at the Council of Clermont
Directions: Persuasive devices and methods of appeal, such as propaganda techniques are ways in which authors attempt to win readers to their point of views. Becoming knowledgeable about these techniques will enable you to recognize propaganda and to differentiate between strong and weak arguments in a wide range of texts
Here is how you do it:
1. Study the title of skim the passage to get a broad sense of the context
2. Identify facts in the passage. Look for specific names, dates, statistics, and statements that can be provided
3. Try to identify opinions in the passage. Look for assertions, claims, hypothesizes, and judgements
4. Also, look for judgement words that the write users to describe people and events.
5. Consider information provided about the author. Ask: Does the author belong to special interest group, social class, political party, or movement that might promote a one sided slanted viewpoint on the subject?
1. In the passage, Pope Urban II tries to persuade the French nobility to go on the Crusade by…
a. Appealing to his authority as a leader of the Catholic Church
b. Offering them large rewards in the event that they are victorious
c. Reminding them that, as nobles, it is their duty to fight
d. Stirring them up with descriptions of horrible cruelties committed by the “enemy”
2. Highlight/ underline Pope Urban II’s main purpose
3. Why does the pope argue that god has given great talent, courage, and strength to the French nobility?
a. To convince them that defeating the “enemy” will be easy
b. Because the French nobles loved to be flattered
c. Because it was a well-established fact at the time
d. To convince them that it is their destiny to go on the Crusade
4. Write a short passage in which you respond to Pope Urban II as a French Noble. What will you do?
Adapted from: Littell, McDougal. World History Patterns of Interaction. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.