There is compelling evidence that mathematical ability, like all human abilities, is normally distributed. Whatever the student population is in K-12, one-half that population will be below average in mathematical ability. One way to help all students but especially those that occupy the left half of the distribution is to simplify the arithmetic procedures as much as possible; to that end this book was written.
Basic Numbers in Base-10 numerations: (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) Define, 9’s Complement used through out this manuscript.
Acronym, 9’s Complement = 9’s Comp
0 1 2 3 4 each number is the 9’s Complement of
9 8 7 6 5 the other because all 5-pares sum to 9
9 9 9 9 9
Using any one or more of the Basic Numbers, you can write any other number. If you want to write four hundred and forty four, 444, you would use 4, three times. If you want to write four thousand and forty four, you would have to use 0, as a placeholder and write 4044, with a zero in the third, 100’s place from the right. Zero means absence of value.