Using the real-world context of counting a pile of beans, my lesson aims to introduce the concept of multiplication as repeated addition, which bridges student's concepts of addition into multiplication. A 1-hour detailed lesson plan with powerpoint slides, group activity sheets, and pictures of teacher demonstration of the concrete task and applying to activity sheet.
Prior Knowledge: Students should be able to do repeated addition (i.e. 1+1+1+1 = 4, 2+2+2=6)
Lesson acts as a bridge between repeated addition and multiplication. Will be a bonus if students can count off (e.g. 2,4,6,8 etc.)
Students will be able to:
Represent grouping of items together based on given criteria (e.g. 5 boxes of 2 beans each), with the help of black beans and computing them through repeated addition
Represent multiplication equations using language such as “5 groups of 3” and/or “5 threes”
- Short document on the learning theories and educational focuses on this lesson
- 1 hour detailed lesson plan
- Powerpoint Slides to complement lesson
- 3 photos taken of the expected end product of the group activity and teacher’s demo
- Group activity sheet
The foundation of this lesson is a problem based learning one. It enables students to see the application of Mathematics in a problem that stems from real-world contexts. Students will be exploring the concept of repeated addition and multiplication in a bid to solve the problem posted to them at the start of the lesson. The focuses and links to the Curriculum Framework are as follows
CONCEPTS – Multiplication concept involving repeated addition of equal groups is structured upon the pupils prior knowledge of addition in primary one. Students will discover by the end of the lesson that repeated addition of equal groups will give rise to multiplication, which allows them to find the total of objects
PROCESS – Mathematical reasoning and communications can be seen from the Development and Consolidation portion, namely the group and individual activities as through communication, students will try and reason out mathematical logics as a group. Connections can be seen from Introduction and Conclusion as in the intro, students are required to connect their mathematical facts of addition, finding total sum, to a real world problem. In conclusion, students are challenged to connect and make linkages to the concept of commutative property of multiplication
SKILLS – Skills that are focused upon in the lesson are the basic addition facts and the usage real world manipulatives (beans) to depict and solve mathematical problems
METACOGNITION – Metacognition is generally in bits and pieces throughout the lesson plan, where teacher uses questioning, to get students to also question themselves. Whether have they understood what they just experienced, are they ready to move on to learn and construct new knowledge for themselves etc.
ATTITUDE – Positive attitude towards mathematics will be generated in this lesson plan due to a few factors. First being that this is a real-world problem, students will feel more connected as they try and find the solution through mathematical means. Second being the students take ownership of their learning, where through group and individual work, they will feel that they have the responsibility to accomplish the learning.
This lesson plan is based mostly on 2 main learning theories. Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Constructivism and Bruner’s Theory of Cognitive Growth.
Social Constructivism – Firstly, teacher’s scaffolding by modelling before students dive into group work, where students through social interaction, will be able to learn from others who may be better than them (MKO).
Cognitive Growth – Bruner’s theory involves a spiral approach which is adopted in a sense where student’s basic addition facts are revisited, building upon the current knowledge of repeated addition into multiplication.Also, the Enactive, Iconic, Symbolic modes of representation, or the C-P-A approach, is also focused on in this lesson where students experience the grouping of the real objects first (Concrete), based on the pictorial images in the worksheet and teacher’s powerpoint slides (Pictorial), to representation of multiplication equation in different forms (Abstract)