NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System

NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #2 The Sun and the Solar System
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These easy-to-use, turnkey lesson plans are aligned with the NGSS High School Earth and Space Science performance expectations and disciplinary core ideas in ESS1: Earth’s Place in the Universe. Each lesson plan includes a summary, a list of resources, learning outcomes, the NGSS alignment for the lesson, lesson procedures, one Science Literacy Activity. The lesson plans also include recommended discussion questions and sample responses, assessment questions and an answer key, computational problems and their solutions.

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UNIT 2 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Lesson Plan 5. The Sun and the Solar System (with Science Literacy Activity #5 - The Sun and the Solar System)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• List different types of cosmic objects populating the Solar System.
• Describe the Sun’s place in the Solar System.
• Compare the Sun’s mass to the mass of the Solar System.
• Describe the effect of the Sun’s gravity on the orbital motion of the planets in the Solar System.
• Describe the source of the Sun’s energy.
• Provide an example of a mathematical model that scientists use to study the physical properties of the Sun.
• Compare and contrast the properties of the Sun and the planets of the Solar System.
• Compare the size of the Sun to that of other stars.
• Explain how the Sun’s gravity and magnetic field define the size of the Solar System.

Lesson Plan 6. Solar Energy Transfer Mechanisms between the Sun and the Earth (with Science Literacy Activity #6 - The Biggest Powerhouse of the Solar System)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• List different types of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun.
• Describe solar energy transfer mechanisms between the Sun and the Earth.
• Identify those types of the Sun’s electromagnetic radiation that reach the surface of the Earth.
• Explain why different planets of the Solar System receive different amounts of solar energy.
• Calculate the time the solar radiation takes to travel from the Sun to the planets of the Solar System.
• Explain how a change in the temperature of the Sun’s visible surface affects the Sun’s color.
• Define the solar constant.
• Explain why the solar constant is not a true constant.
• Provide observational evidence for variations in the Sun’s radiation that happen over time and agree with the scientific models of the Sun.
• Describe how the Sun’s brightness has changed over the last few billion years.

Lesson Plan 7. Nuclear Fusion in the Sun and the Sun’s Stability (with Science Literacy Activity #7 - Nuclear Fusion in the Sun and the Sun’s Stability)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the composition of the Sun.
• Identify the region of the Sun’s interior where nuclear fusion reactions take place.
• Describe the temperature and density at the center of the Sun predicted by the scientific models of the Sun.
• Estimate for how long the Sun’s core can generate energy at its present rate.
• Explain why the Sun does not explode.
• Explain how Einstein’s equation relates mass and energy.
• Define a nuclear fusion reaction and describe the type of nuclear fusion reactions that produce energy in the Sun’s core.
• Calculate the amount of energy produced when nuclear fusion reactions convert hydrogen into helium.
• State the solar neutrino problem and describe how scientists solve it.
• Explain how nuclear fusion, hydrostatic equilibrium and thermal equilibrium are important to the model of the Sun.

Lesson Plan 8. The Sun’s Structure and Energy Transfer Mechanisms inside the Sun (with Science Literacy Activity #8 - Journey from the Center of the Sun)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Identify the region of the Sun’s interior in which the Sun’s energy is generated.
• Describe three mechanisms for transporting energy from hot regions to cooler regions.
• Describe two mechanisms for transporting solar energy inside the Sun.
• Explain how the solar radiation produced in the Sun’s core changes its properties as it travels through the Sun.
• Explain the nature of the Sun’s visible surface.
• Describe how scientists determine physical conditions below the Sun’s visible surface.
• Provide empirical evidence for convection inside the Sun.

Lesson Plan 9. Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (with Science Literacy Activity #9 - Our Stormy Sun and Space Weather)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the Carrington event.
• Describe the observational evidence that indicates that the Sun becomes active and “stormy.”
• Define and describe solar flares.
• Explain why X-class flares are dangerous.
• Describe the properties of coronal mass ejections.
• Describe magnetic nature of solar activity.
• Provide examples of connections between magnetic fields and the properties of stars at different periods of their lives.

Lesson Plan 10. The Sun’s Magnetic Field, Sunspot Cycles and Solar Activity (with Science Literacy Activity #10 - Can the Sun Change Its Spots?)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the appearance and structure of sunspots.
• Describe how Galileo Galilei and Richard Carrington determined the rotational rate of the Sun.
• Explain how the magnetic field of the Sun causes the formation of sunspots.
• Explain how the number of sunspots visible on the Sun changes within an approximate 11-year cycle.
• Compare the duration of the previous sunspot cycles.
• Explain the purpose of the Maunder Butterfly Diagram.
• Identify observational facts that scientists use in order to determine whether the sunspots belong to the same solar cycle.
• Explain the relation between solar cycles and the cyclical changes in the Sun’s magnetic field.
• Calculate the Wolf sunspot number.

Lesson Plan 11. Space Weather and Variations in Solar Activity (with Science Literacy Activity #11 - Mystery of the Young Sun)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the Faint Young Sun Paradox.
• Describe the properties of superflares.
• Describe how scientists use empirical evidence from observations of young solar-type stars to explain the Young Sun Paradox.
• Explain how superflares could lead to the conditions on the young Earth favorable for the emergence of life.
• Describe what would happen to the Earth today should the Sun produce a superflare.
• Use observational evidence in the analysis of the likelihood for the modern Sun to produce a superflare.

Lesson Plan 12. Space Weather and Its Effects on the Earth’s Weather and Climate (with Science Literacy Activity #12 - How Solar Cycles Affect Our Planet)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain how variations in solar ultraviolet radiation during a solar cycle can affect atmospheric ozone.
• Explain how we can track past solar cycles by measuring the abundance of isotope carbon-14.
• Discuss the results of scientific studies that examine any proposed relations between solar cycles and global warming (or global cooling) on the Earth.
• Explain why scientists have not reached a conclusive agreement on whether abnormally long solar maxima or minima contribute to the periods of global warming and cooling that have occurred throughout Earth's history.

Lesson Plan 13. The Sun, Space Weather and the Earth’s Atmosphere (with Science Literacy Activity #13 - How the Sun Affects Our Atmosphere)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the origin and composition of galactic cosmic rays.
• Describe how galactic cosmic rays were discovered.
• Explain how galactic cosmic rays can form clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere.
• Explain how the Sun can hinder the cloud formation that might be otherwise be triggered by incoming cosmic rays.
• Explain how space weather can affect our planet’s atmospheric electricity.
• Provide empirical evidence indicating that space weather can affect our planet’s atmospheric electricity.
• Describe how the solar wind can affect the Earth’s atmospheric escape.


Lesson Plan 14. Space Weather and the Earth’s Magnetosphere (with Science Literacy Activity #14 - How the Sun Turns the Northern and Southern Light On)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain the formation of aurorae as the most visible manifestation of space weather.
• Describe the reversal of the Earth’s magnetic poles.
• Explain how the solar wind can affect the Earth when the Earth’s magnetic field changes.

Terms of Use: Copyright© 2015 Irina Mullins. All rights reserved by the author. Your purchase of this product permits you to have this product used by one teacher for educational purposes in one classroom only. Copying for more than one teacher, classroom, department, school, or school system is prohibited. This entire product, or any parts within this product, may not be electronically redistributed or posted to any website including teacher blogs or classroom blogs.
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