NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars

NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
NGSS Earth and Space Science Lesson Plans BUNDLE #3 The Universe and Its Stars
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These easy-to-use, turnkey lesson plans are aligned with the NGSS High School Earth and Space Science performance expectations and disciplinary core ideas in ESS1: Earth’s Place in the Universe. Each lesson plan includes a summary, a list of resources, learning outcomes, the NGSS alignment for the lesson, lesson procedures, one Science Literacy Activity. The lesson plans also include recommended discussion questions and sample responses, assessment questions and an answer key, computational problems and their solutions.

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Please review a list of lesson plans and the learning outcomes provided below. The list will be growing as I am adding new lesson plans and teaching resources. Purchase this BUNDLE now to receive all yet-to-be-added lesson plans and teaching resources for FREE. The price of this BUNDLE will increase as additional materials are added. Follow me to receive email notifications when new lesson plans and teaching resources are added. Notifications are sent via TpT Inbox.

UNIT 3 THE UNIVERSE AND ITS STARS:

Lesson Plan 15. Masses and Life Spans of the Sun and Other Stars : (with Science Literacy Activity #15 - Masses and Life Spans of the Sun and Other Stars)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe how the density and temperature inside a star depend on the star’s mass and gravity
• Explain how astronomers study the evolution of the Sun and other stars.
• Compare the mass of other stars to that of the Sun.
• Explain how the life span of a star depends on the star’s mass.
• Define luminosity.
• To provide empirical evidence for the relation between stars’ masses and their life spans.
• Define gyrochronology.
• Explain how astronomers measure the spin of a star.

Lesson Plan 16. Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Life Span of the Sun and Other Stars: (with Science Literacy Activity #16 - Stellar Nucleosynthesis)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the composition of the Sun.
• Identify the region of the Sun’s interior where nuclear fusion reactions take place.
• Explain why the Sun doesn’t explode.
• Explain what Einstein’s equation tells us about mass and energy.
• Define a nuclear fusion reaction.
• Compare the p-p chain and the CNO cycle.

Lesson Plan 17. Supernovae: (with Science Literacy Activity #17 - Supernovae)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain why supernovae are difficult to detect in our Milky Way Galaxy.
• Describe a Type Ia supernova.
• Explain why scientists call Type Ia supernovae “standard candles.”
• Describe the nature of white dwarfs.
• Explain how a white dwarf can acquire enough material to become a Type Ia supernova.
• Describe the properties of Type II supernovae.
• Describe how the brightness of Type II supernovae change over time.
• Explain what can happen to the Earth if a star goes supernova at a distance of one light-year away from the Earth.
• Describe how distant supernovae can reach out to the Earth.

Lesson Plan 18. Masses and Life Spans of the Sun and Other Stars: (with Science Literacy Activity #18 - Stellar Evolution and Chemical Composition of the Universe)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium that existed when the Universe came into existence.
• Define stellar evolution.
• Describe in general terms how nuclear fusion occurs in stars.
• Describe how nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.
• Explain how the first stars affected the composition of interstellar gas and dust.
• Explain how a star’s size remains stable.
• Explain what happens to a massive star after it forms an iron core.
• Compare the chemical composition of the Universe to the chemical composition of the Sun and the Virgo Cluster.

Lesson Plan 19. Stellar Explosions and the Earth: (with Science Literacy Activity #19 - Stellar Explosions and the Earth)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain what a supernova is.
• Use empirical data to describe how bright supernovae can get.
• Describe what will happen to the Earth if a supernova explosion occurs within 30 light-years of our planet.
• Describe how powerful hypernovae are.
• Describe what can happen to the Earth if a hypernova occurs at a distance of 1,000 light-years from the Solar System, pointed directly at the Earth.
• Describe the origin of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen, helium and lithium.
• Explain how matter expelled into space by supernovae can get into our Solar System and our bodies.
• Describe the future the Sun and the Solar System predicted by scientific theories.

Lesson Plan 20. Radiation Laws and the Properties of Stars: (Science Literacy Activity #20 - Radiation Laws and the Properties of Stars)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• List the types of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars.
• Explain how Wien’s law relates the peak of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object to the temperature of the object.
• Explain why luminous stars are an excellent example of a black body.
• Explain how Stefan-Boltzmann law relates the total amount of the energy of electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object to the temperature of the object.
• Provide examples of how Wien’s law is used in astronomy.
• Calculate the surface temperature of a star using Wien’s law.

Lesson Plan 21. Spectral Analysis and the Spectra of the Sun and Other Stars: (with Science Literacy Activity #21 - Spectral Analysis and the Spectra of the Sun and Other Stars)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe how Isaac Newton observed the spectrum of sunlight.
• Describe William Herschel’s experiments with starlight.
• Explain how Joseph von Fraunhofer rediscovered the dark lines in the Sun's spectrum.
• Explain what spectral analysis is.
• Explain how Gustav Kirchhoff interpreted the Fraunhofer lines in the spectrum of the Sun.
• Describe how the study of the Fraunhofer lines led to the discovery of helium.
• Explain how Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff established the foundation of spectral analysis.

Lesson Plan 22. Kirchhoff’s Laws of Spectroscopy and the Studies of the Sun and Other Stars : (Science Literacy Activity #22 - Kirchhoff’s Laws of Spectroscopy)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain what spectral lines are.
• Explain how Kirchhoff’s Laws of Spectroscopy describe the properties of spectra and their origin.
• Explain how an emission-line spectrum can form.
• Explain what the ground state in an atom is.
• Explain what an electron needs in order to transition from one energy level to another.
• To explain the formation of spectral lines.
• To explain how astronomers learn about the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres.

Lesson Plan 23. Spectroscopy and Chemical Composition of Stars : (Science Literacy Activity #23 - Spectroscopy and Chemical Composition of Stars)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain how astronomers use spectroscopy in their studies.
• Explain how the early studies of stellar spectra made most astronomers think that the stars were composed primarily of heavy elements.
• Explain how Cecilia Payne discovered the real chemical composition of stars.
• Describe how modern astronomers visually present stellar spectra.

Lesson Plan 24. Spectroscopy and the Doppler Effect: (Science Literacy Activity #24 - Spectroscopy and the Doppler Effect)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain what the Doppler Effect is
• Provide examples of the Doppler Effect from everyday life.
• Describe how electromagnetic waves experience the Doppler Effect when the sender and the receiver of the electromagnetic waves are moving with respect to one another.
• Explain how the Doppler Effect provides information about the motion of a star.
• Explain how astronomers use the Doppler Effect to determine if a planet orbits the star.
• Explain how the Doppler Effect is related to Doppler broadening of spectral lines in stellar spectra.

Lesson Plan 25. The Hubble Law : (with Science Literacy Activity #25 - The Hubble Law)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Explain what scientists understand from the cosmological models of the Universe.
• Explain why Einstein added the cosmological constant to the equations in his General Relativity theory.
• Describe what Friedmann’s model says about the Universe.
• Explain what the spectra of very distant galaxies tell us about the motion of the galaxies.
• Describe the main ideas of the Big Bang theory.
• Explain what the modern scientific estimate of the age of the Universe is.
• Explain what the cosmic microwave background is.
• Describe the empirical evidence that supports the Big Bang theory.

Lesson Plan 26. Dark Matter and Dark Energy: (Science Literacy Activity #26 - Dark Matter and Dark Energy)
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the composition of the visible Universe.
• Explain what scientists mean when they say that dark matter is invisible.
• Describe observational data that suggests the existence of dark matter.
• Explain what WIMPs are.
• Describe what scientists say about the existence of dark matter made up of exotic particles in the Milky Way Galaxy.
• Describe how dark energy affects the Universe.
• Explain how dark energy might change our Universe in the very distant future.


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