NGSS MS-ESS1-1 Earth’s Place in the Universe-Earth-Sun-Moon System
PowerPoint. The Earth-sun-moon system causes cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses, and seasons. Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. Models can explain eclipses.
Earth’s spin axis is fixed in direction but tilted relative to it’s orbit around the sun.
The seasons are a result of that tilt and caused by the differential intensity of sunlight at different times of the year. The Moon orbits the Earth, but at the same time, the Earth-Moon system orbits the Sun. Solar energy-any type of energy generated by the sun. Solar energy is created by nuclear fusion that takes place in the sun. Fusion occurs when protons of hydrogen atoms violently collide in the sun’s core and fuse to create a helium atom. Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours.
The rotation causes day and night.
Earth’s axis of rotation is 23.4° tilted to the plane of orbit around the Sun. Earth-moon system orbits the sun once an Earth year. Solar energy travels in a straight line from the sun to Earth and the moon so that the side of the Earth or moon that faces the sun is illuminated. Solar energy reflects off the side of the moon that faces the sun and can travel to Earth. The distance between the Earth and the sun stays relatively constant throughout the Earth’s orbit. Solar energy travels in a straight line from the sun and hits Earth at different angles. Solar energy hits more directly at the equator and less directly at the poles. Earth has one moon revolving around it.
A satellite is an object that revolves around a planet. Scientists think that the Moon formed when another large object collided with Earth.
A large amount of matter was ejected into space in the collision.
The material eventually formed the Moon. Gravitational force between Earth and the Moon causes the Moon to orbit the Earth.
The Moon rotates on its axis once every 28 days. The moon rotates on its axis at the same rate at which it orbits Earth so that the side of the moon that faces the Earth remains the same.
The moon’s orbital plane is tilted with respect to the Earth’s orbit around the sun.
The Moon reflects sunlight.
As the Moon travels around Earth, the illuminated portion changes.
The different appearances of the Moon are called lunar phases.
An eclipse is a total or partial obscuring of one celestial body by another.
There are two types of eclipses:
For a total solar eclipse on Earth, there must be perfect alignment of the Moon and the Sun.
The Moon casts a small shadow on Earth.
A lunar eclipse occurs when a portion of the Moon is shaded from direct sunlight by Earth.
During a lunar eclipse, Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon when the Moon is full.
Season-A division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
On Earth, seasons result from Earth's orbit around the Sun and Earth's axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane.
Because the Earth’s axis is tilted, the most direct and intense solar energy occurs over the summer months.
Less direct and intense solar energy occurs over the winter months.
The change of season is directly related to the tilt of the Earth and where it is in its orbit around the sun.
Directness and solar energy change.
Summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth’s orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted towards the sun.
Winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth’s orbit when the southern axis of the Earth is tilted away from the sun.
Winter occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth’s orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted away from the sun.
Summer occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth’s orbit when the southern axis of the Earth is tilted toward the sun.
Can be edited for younger or older learners.
Check out NGSS MSESS1-1 Worksheet to check for understanding.