Nuremberg Trial ~ International Law ~ Criminal Law ~ Nazis ~ Goering ~ Presentation, Quiz + flashcards ~ 79 Slides!
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This is a complete presentation on Nuremberg Trial International Criminal Law which is highly visual and thoroughly annotated. There are 20 multiple choice questions with answer key. The presentation is 44 slides. The flashcards are 30 and the quiz is 5. My preview is 6 of the slides in the presentation for you to download. These are 4 presentation slides and two flashcard slides. This will give you the best idea of what the product is like. There are also 4 pop up thumbnails which go with this listing and the below text excerpts.
EXCERPT PROCEDURAL ISSUES
prosecutors and defense attorneys were used
decisions and sentences were imposed by a tribunal (panel of judges)
chief prosecutor was Robert H. Jackson an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
each Allied power supplied a main judge and an alternate.
technological innovation of instantaneous translation by IBM solved the language barrier problem (4 different languages among all involved).
IBM provided the technology and recruited employees of international telephone exchanges.
IBM provided on-the-spot translations through headphones in English, French, German and Russian (above right image).
Nazi defendants were allowed to choose their own lawyers
most used defense: the crimes defined in the London Charter were ex post facto laws (laws existed after crimes were committed)
next most used defense: trial was victor’s justice–the winners (Allies) were applying a harsh standard to crimes committed by Germans while minimizing crimes committed by Allied soldiers.
EXCERPT DIRECT TESTIMONY GOERING
The defense put Goering on the witness stand. Goering’s attitude was that of an unrepentant Nazi.
He reviewed his distinguished military service during the First World War.
He recalled his fateful meeting with Hitler in 1922.
Goering recalled his bond with Hitler was based on their opposition to the Versailles Treaty.
He gave the theory and practice of Nazism at length.
“I had done everything possible to strengthen the National Socialist movement, to increase it, and have worked unceasingly to bring it to power under all circumstances and as the one and only authority..."
He said he was responsible for the planning and execution of Germany's aggressions up to the invasion of the Soviet Union. That he opposed.
He admitted the punishments imposed on German Jews after the Nazi looting of property owned by Jews during Kristallnacht in 1938.
He denied knowledge of and responsibility for the systematic extermination of the Jews in Nazi concentration camps.
EXCERPT CROSS EXAM TESTIMONY GOERING
Jackson was not proving his case with these questions. He was giving Goering the chance to make speeches.
Instead of radically altering his questions, especially getting rid of their compound structure, Jackson began fighting with the tribunal about limiting Goering’s responses to his questions so he couldn’t make speeches.
The tribunal refused to limit Goering’s answers and Jackson returned again and again to fighting with the tribunal over this issue. The tribunal did not change its response.
On the third day, Jackson got to present all the documents Goering had signed regarding the extermination of the Jews. This was powerful evidence against Goering.
These went back to Goering's issuance of crucial anti-Jewish edicts dating back to the Nuremberg Laws on Citizenship and Race promulgated by the Reichstag over Goering's signature in September 1935.
Jackson faltered again, however, when he used Goering's letter of July 31, 1941, to Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, which ordered Heydrich to prepare a plan for the "final solution of the Jewish question.”
Goering countered this by saying there was a mistranslation. That the correct German word was “total” and not “final” and referred to emigration, not murder.
Incredibly, Jackson just let the whole thing drop, although he was holding the letter in his hand and had translators at his disposal.
Nevertheless, there was so much evidence upon which the tribunal could convict Goering, with the mountains of documentary evidence at its disposal, that there never was doubt that Goering would be convicted. He was convicted.
Jackson was sufficiently embarrassed by this cross examination that he left it out of his subsequent book entirely.