This organizational chart lists the phonemes (sounds), graphemes (spelling patterns), and examples. The graphemes are organized by: consonants, digraphs, and vowels. The graphemes and examples of graphemes are color-coded by frequency. This allows for simplified differentiated lesson planning for RTI and enrichment with small and whole group instruction.
Phonemic awareness is the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes) made by the mouth, like the /p/ sound in “spoon”. Phonemic awareness is central in learning to read and spell (Ehri, 1984) and the lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful determinant of the likelihood of failure to read. (Adams, 1990). Despite there being just 26 letters in the English language, there are over 44 unique sounds (phonemes).
Graphemes are individual letters and groups of letters that represent single phonemes, like the “s” and the “oo” in “spoon”. There are three categories of graphemes: consonants, digraphs, and vowels. Understanding how letters are used to encode speech sounds in written language is crucial in learning to decode unfamiliar words.
In 2004, Edward Fry, Ph.D, known for Fry Words, created a summary and simplification of a very large phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. (1966). He wanted to provide teachers and curriculum developers with usable and scientifically-based information for developing phonics and spelling instructional programs presented in a comprehensible manner. The grapheme anchor chart letters are color-coded based on Dr. Fry’s research on the phoneme-grapheme frequency count. All single consonants and short vowel graphemes seen on an alphabet chart are coded green. Graphemes that are frequent, such as digraph /sh/ are yellow. Graphemes that are irregular (not very frequent) are red. Irregular words are a result of many words in our English language coming from other countries. Dialect can also influence the sounds heard within a word.
Anchor Charts with all the examples on the organizational chart can be used with any literacy program in whole and small group instruction. This product can also be used for creating a phoneme/grapheme wall. This type of wall is especially beneficial for struggling or young readers, as well as English Language Learners because it provides a picture that connects the phoneme (sound) with the grapheme (spelling pattern). It can be purchased at:
⭐ Anchor Charts for 47 Phonemes and 259 Graphemes Color- Coded by Frequency