• Activate prior knowledge
• Engage all students
• Help special needs readers to demonstrate student learning expectations
Project on a screen for whole class discussion. I-GOs
• activate prior knowledge and arouse curiosity with pictures
• engage all students' attention
• prepare students to read
• make visual associations among text, words, and concepts
• feature basic and content-area vocabulary
• develop students' abilities to visualize what they are reading
• illustrate and explore topics, subtopics, and key details
• model information organization
• develop student self-efficacy with accessible learning materials
Provide as worksheets for special needs readers (e.g., visual learners, limited English proficient (LEP) students, students with learning disabilities). I-GOs
• help students to develop comprehension skills
• link print literacy with visual concepts
• generate associations among concepts
• reinforce vocabulary concepts
• provide kinesthetic activities
• provide artifacts for assessment portfolios
Designed especially for visual learners, I-GO illustrated graphic organizers feature basic and academic content vocabulary and complement traditional textbooks.
I-GO illustrated graphic organizers can benefit 3.7 million limited English proficient (LEP) students and 2.9 million students with learning disabilities, who are mainstreamed in U.S. classrooms, yet lack the reading skills to decode grade-level textbooks.
Sample Lesson Using Paradise Birds I-GO
Provide students with page 1 of the illustrated graphic organizers. The rich visual reference activates prior knowledge about the topic and provides a reference point for a discussion with the students about key details, such as bird characteristics, behaviors, and habitat.
Using a Smartboard, search the internet for images of paradise birds (also known as “birds of paradise”). When encountering a flower of the same name, compare various features on the bird and flower to note their similarities and differences and what advantages the bird might have by looking like a flower. Encourage associating the new information with a previously learned concept (e.g., camouflage).
Read aloud, to the students, informational text about the topic. Their increased interest and curiosity about the lesson creates a condition for motivated, purposeful, and meaningful reading. While reading the text, pause to discuss the pictures as they relate to the text, and the text as it relates to their expectations. Identify the key details and discuss unfamiliar words. After the reading, the students can independently color the illustration on page one of the graphic organizers.
Begin the second half of this lesson with informational media, such as the PBS digital video about Paradise Birds, Birds of the Gods, (David Attenborough, 2011), followed by a whole class discussion. Review page one of the graphic organizers, the new vocabulary words, and the key details. For a kinesthetic activity, invite the students, in pairs or singly, to mimic the birds’ songs and dances. Then, in small groups, encourage the students to work cooperatively to create the drawings on page two. As they draw, discuss the key details that need to be featured in the drawings.
Session C – Learning Assessment
Review pages 1 and 2 with the students. Provide and discuss pages 3 and 4. Learners will
• Cut out the pictures and vocabulary words/labels
• Identify main topic and subtopics
• Glue pictures and labels
• Use drawing/coloring to indicate opinion (favorite bird)
Students’ Responses to the Lessons:
The students tend to enjoy the lessons. The discussions allow them to share their previous knowledge on the topic, and they like to participate in the internet search. They enjoy the video, Birds of the Gods, and like to mimic the birds’ songs and dances.
In the discussions that follow the guided imagery, students experience increased confidence and self-efficacy about the reading lesson, as they realize that they already know a lot about the topic. During the reading, they tend to listen quietly and ask thoughtful questions that indicate reflective thinking.
Guided imagery is an effective strategy for arousing students’ interest and curiosity and prepares them to read with anticipation. By activating the students’ schemata and developing the students’ abilities to visualize what they are reading, guided imagery builds the students’ experience bases and motivates them to explore concepts. The confidence gained from approaching the reading lesson mentally prepared engenders self-efficacy. By engaging the students’ imaginations prior to reading and making the reading relevant to their lives, guided imagery provides an engaging format to prepare students to read and to visualize what they are reading.