Poetry Review for Standardized Testing

Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
Poetry Review for Standardized Testing
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Introduction and Poetry Terms

I designed this unit to review poetry concepts and terms prior to my students taking a standardized reading test. All of the poems used in the unit are in the public domain. The unit covers the following poetry concepts and devices:

I. Structure and presentation devices

Poets use the visual structure of a poem to help the reader understand its intended meaning. They also use the point of view from which the poem is expressed as a way to structure meaning.

  1. Speaker—the person who tells the poem, the persona that the writer has adopted for the poem.
  2. Line—words in a row in a poem. Pay attention to line length and any rhythm in each line. Remember that line breaks are signals from the poet as to how a poem is to be read and understood. Try to uncover the reasons behind line breaks.
  3. Line Break terms:

a. End-stopped—where a line ends at a normal speech pause

b. Enjambed—lines end without a normal speech pause (at subject/ predicate/prepositional phrase) and, thus, ideas run from one line to the next without a pause

  1. Poets create line breaks in the following ways/places:

a. At units such as a sentence, an image, or a part of a sentence that goes together because of syntax

b. Within a sentence unit creating a new emphasis or pause

c. At an end-stopped pause

d. At a place that makes the line enjambed (idea continuing to the next line)

e. At a place designated by the rules of a specific poetic form

E. Stanza—a grouping of lines similar to a paragraph in a piece of prose. As with lines, stanzas are broken for specific reasons. Pay attention to these breaks and examine why the poet created these divisions in the poem.

  1. Meter—the specific rhythm used in a poem.
  2. Apostrophe—a poem that is addressed to an inanimate object or a person who is not present
  3. Free Verse—a poem that does not have a predetermined structure. It does, however, have specific structural features created by the poet to make the poem “poetic” rather than just a piece of prose divided randomly into lines and stanzas.
  4. Plain Style—writing with simplicity, clarity of expression and everyday words
  5. Couplet—two lines grouped together

II. Sound devices

Poets often use the sounds of words to make a poem cohesive. They also use sound as a way to highlight important concepts in a poem. Below are some sound devices that many poets use.

A. Rhyme—when two or more words have the same sound at the end of the words

B. End rhyme—rhyme appearing at the end of lines

C. Internal rhyme—rhyme within a single line of poetry

D. Rhyme scheme—show the pattern of rhyme with a, a, b, b…notation

E. Exact Rhyme—the words rhyme exactly—no deviation in sound at the end of the word: cat—hat, dog—hog, heart—start

F. Near Rhyme (also known as half rhyme, approximate rhyme, slant rhyme, or imperfect rhyme)—words that almost rhyme because the sounds are similar but not exactly the same: light—late, whisper—winter, bays—wave, Katie—shady

G. Eye Rhyme—words that look as if they should rhyme due to their spelling but do not actually rhyme due to their pronunciation: dough—rough, said—laid, daughter—laughter, tone—done—one

H. Inversion—a reversal of the normal order of words in a phrase or sentence used by poets to follow rhyme scheme and/or meter (pattern of rhythm) in a poem

I. Elision—a letter/sound/syllable is left out of a word to preserve the meter of a poem—an apostrophe is inserted where the missing part should be

J. Alliteration—repetition of beginning sounds of words—make sure they are the same sounds and not just the same letters.

K. Assonance—repetition of vowel sounds

L. Consonance—repetition of consonant sounds

M. Repetition—repeating words, phrases, lines or stanzas

N. Pun—a play on words based on multiple meanings of homophones

O. Onomatopoeia—the sound of a word describes its meaning

P. Anaphora—the repetition of the beginning of lines or sentences (used in poetry and speeches)

III. Meaning devices

Poets often use devices based on the meanings of words and phrases that help convey the intended meaning. Below are some meaning devices used by poets.

A. Sensory image—word pictures that appeal to the senses (imagery)

B. Diction—word choice

C. Mood/tone—the author’s attitude toward the subject as shown in the poem

D. Allusion—reference to another work of art or an event

E. Symbol—one thing represents another

F. Metaphor—stating something is something it is not

G. Tenor/Ground/Vehicle-- In figurative language,

· The tenor is the literal term/concept (what is being compared to something else)

· The vehicle is the figurative term/concept (to what the tenor is being compared)

· The ground is the set of properties that both the tenor and vehicle have in common. The ground is where one finds the meaning of the figurative expression.

H. Simile—a metaphor using like or as (as __adjective__ as)

I. Extended Metaphor—a metaphor that is shown throughout a whole poem or one that develops at length in a poem

J. Personification—give human characteristics to something that is not human

K. Hyperbole—exaggeration for effect

L. Understatement—stating that something is less that it really is

M. Verbal irony—saying one thing and meaning the opposite

N. Paradox— something that seems as if it should be impossible but is not based on the information presented in the piece of writing or situation

O. Direct Address—when a speaker/ writer speaks/writes to the audience of the speech or written piece

P. Imperative Statement—statement that commands the reader to do something

Q. Euphemism—a word/phrase substituted for a taboo word/phrase or one that makes people feel bad

Total Pages
165 pages
Answer Key
Teaching Duration
2 Weeks
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