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This zip file contains many different activities (44 pages of student handouts and 3 PowerPoints with a total of 65 slides) which can be used to compose a unit for AP Biology or advanced Biology students involving the Topics of Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution. Some topics addressed in this unit include a discussion of the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem theoretically and mathematically, genetic drift, gene flow, bottleneck effect, allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation, convergent evolution, divergent evolution, parallel evolution, geographic and reproductive isolation, speciation, pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms, gradualism, punctuated equilibrium and many other related topics. More specifics on the learning goals addressed in this learning package may be viewed near the end of this course description.
While these lessons were originally designed for my AP Biology curriculum, they can be adapted to any advanced level Biology program. The Educational Testing Service also provides two labs which fit well with this unit. Links to obtain these labs are included in the "read me first" text file in this zip file package. This read me first file also contains links to an online textbook which can be used in replacement of traditional classroom textbooks.
This lesson packet contains a listing of the learning goals, common core learning standards, NGSS learning standards and the AP Biology performance indicators addressed in these materials. These are included in the packet and at the end of the description of this lesson.
The components of this lesson package can easily be displayed to students using an LCD projector and may be readily modified into formats facilitating smartboard technology. Most documents are included in both word and pdf format to allow editing for specific teacher needs.
Answer keys are included for all listed student work items. Student files have been provided in both editable word and pdf format to allow you to edit the activities to meet the needs of the students in your classroom.
The specific contents of the learning package includes the following items (the page count for these items are actual student handouts as answer key page counts are not included):
-- Learning Goals and Objectives for this unit correlated to the AP Bio ETS, NGSS and Common Core Learning standards (3 pages)
-- Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution Completion Notes (15 pages)
-- PowerPoint to accompany the Completion Notes (65 slides)
-- Hardy-Weinberg Bell ringer / Warm-up PowerPoint with answers (3 slides)
-- Hardy-Weinberg and Sickle Cell Anemia Bell ringer / Warm-up PowerPoint with answers (4 slides)
-- Hardy-Weinberg Problems Worksheet One (1 page) (4 multi-step problems)
-- Hardy-Weinberg Problems Worksheet Two (3 pages) (8 multi-step problems)
-- Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution Reading Worksheet (correlated to the Open Stax Biology textbook free online) (25 questions/5 pages)
-- Teddy Graham (Introduction to Hardy-Weinberg) Lab (6 pages)
-- Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution Exam (30 multiple choice and 1 short answer question) (5 pages)
Upon the completion of this unit the student will be able to:
1. explain why the population is the basic unit of evolution.
2. explain how microevolution change can affect a gene pool.
3. state the Hardy-Weinberg theorem.
4. write the general Hardy-Weinberg equation and use it to calculate allele and genotype frequencies.
5. explain the consequences of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
6. describe the usefulness of the Hardy-Weinberg model to population geneticists.
7. list the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
8. explain how genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating and natural selection can cause microevolution.
9. explain the role of population size in genetic drift.
10. distinguish between the bottleneck effect and the founder effect.
11. distinguish between and examples of prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
12. distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
13. explain how geographical isolation can lead to reproductive isolation.
14. explain how introgression and polyploidy cause reproductive isolation and sympatric speciation.
15. discuss the two schools of thought about the tempo of speciation (gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium).
ETS AP Biology Population Genetics and Modes of Speciation Learning Objectives:
LO 1.1 Students will be able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and apply mathematical methods and conceptual understandings to investigate the cause(s) and effect(s) of this change. [SP 1.5, SP 2.2]
LO 1.2 Students will be able to evaluate evidence provided by data to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the role of natural selection in evolution. [SP 2.2, SP 5.3]
LO 1.3 Students will be able to apply mathematical methods to data from a real or simulated population to predict what will happen to the population in the future. [SP 2.2]
LO 1.4 Students will be able to evaluate data-based evidence that describes evolutionary changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time. [SP 5.3]
LO 1.5 Students will be able to connect evolutionary changes in a population over time to a change in the environment. [SP 7.1]
LO 1.7 Students will be able to justify data from mathematical models based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and the effects of selection in the evolution of specific populations. [SP 2.1]
LO 1.8 Students will be able to make predictions about the effects of genetic drift, migration, and artificial selection on the genetic makeup of a population. [SP 6.4]
LO 1.13 Students will be able to Construct and/or justify mathematical models, diagrams, or simulations that represent processes of biological evolution. [SP 1.1, SP 2.1]
LO 1.22 Students will be able to Use data from a real or simulated population(s), based on graphs or models of types of selection, to predict what will happen to the population in the future. [SP 6.4]
LO 1.23 Students will be able to justify the selection of data that address questions related to reproductive isolation and speciation. [SP 4.1]
LO 1.25 Students will be able to describe a model that represents evolution within a population. [SP 1.2]
LO 4.25 Students will be able to Use evidence to justify a claim that a variety of phenotypic responses to a single environmental factor can result from different genotypes within the population. [SP 6.1]
LO 4.26 Students will be able to Use theories and models to make scientific claims and/or predictions about the effects of variation within populations on survival and fitness. [SP 6.4]
NGSS Learning Standards
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.
Common Core State Standards Connections:
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
MP.4 Model with mathematics
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