This game illustrates factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions and serves as a review of basic chemistry concepts related to chemical reactions.
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Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms. Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.
Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules. Assessment is limited to simple reactions in which there are only two reactants; evidence from temperature, concentration, and rate data; and qualitative relationships between rate and temperature.
Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed. Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.
Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved. Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.
Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added. Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.