Ratiocination is an editing tool best used toward the end of the writing process – after the student has expressed his or her content knowledge to the best of their ability. It is easiest to use a hard copy of writing (e.g. handwritten or printout of a digital document). The student works through each row of the table by looking for the indicated “clues” in their writing. Each time a clue is located it is marked with the corresponding code and a set of decision making rules is applied. A table of scientific terms, organized by non-scientific synonyms, is provided to help students clarify meanings. This deliberate and reflective editing process helps students deepen their content knowledge and greatly improves the accuracy and clarity of their scientific writing (e.g. essays and free response questions).