Regular Past Tense Verbs Bundle: when “ed" is pronounced as /t/, /d/ and /əd/

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    At around 48-54 months, typically developing children start to use regular past tense verbs, e.g. stopped, played and lifted. Although these verbs are all spelled with an "ed" at the end, the speech sounds used to signal regular past tense vary:

    • Sometimes, the "ed" is pronounced as a /t/, e.g. as in "stopped", "bumped", "asked", "baked", "hopped", "liked", and "walked".
    • Sometimes, the "ed" is pronounced as a /d/,  e.g. as in "played", "called", "carried", "rolled", "opened", "turned", "showed".
    • Sometimes, the "ed" is pronounced as an "ed" /əd/, e.g. as in "counted", "lifted", "shouted", and "folded".

    Most people learn the past tense form of regular verbs and the pronunciation rules without needing to be taught about them. However, people learning English as an additional language and/or people with developmental language disorders sometimes don't pick up these patterns automatically. In simple terms:

    This no-preparation bundle is designed to provide people with structured practice using frequently used regular past tense verbs. In this bundle, we use examples to practice "ed" pronounced as /d/, /t/ and /əd/. With both picture cues and orthography, this bundle can be used with people of all ages.

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