Present History traces the causes and consequences of the Renaissance and the Reformation. This world-history presentation includes a look at the elites who defined Renaissance Europe, humanism and secularism, the patrons who supported the Renaissance, “Renaissance Man” and “Renaissance Woman,” perspective in Renaissance art, Leonardo da Vinci as a “Renaissance Man," the use of the vernacular, Machiavelli, Thomas More's Utopia, William Shakespeare, Gutenberg, Martin Luther and Predestination, John Calvin, Henry VIII, Anabaptists, Jesuits, the Counter-Reformation, and the Thirty Years War, the Peace of Westphalia. Essential questions include: How did elites of the time define or describe the Renaissance? What were some effects of the Renaissance? Why was more funding going into the arts at this time? List some key Renaissance artists and their artwork. How did the Renaissance change as it spread to northern Europe? Why did people begin to question the Catholic Church? What was Martin Luther's greatest criticism of the Church? List the leaders of the Reformation and explain the role that each of them played in the movement. Describe the sixteenth-century wars of religion. What made 1648 a turning point in European history? What was the Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation? Define the Protestant Reformation and the Counter Reformation. Explain how Henry VIII's actions created a "top-down" movement. Find a student note guide on this presentation by searching "Renaissance Europe and the Reformation Notes and Review."