When reading aloud struggling readers need to understand what qualifies a fluent reader: expression, rate, and accuracy. As those three qualifiers are broken down, teach each.
- Discuss expression by how the voice should reflect the emotions the author intended, voice inflection, reading punctuation (i.e. the voice goes up with a question, an exclamation point reflects emotion such as excitement or anger, pause at commas and semicolons, voice goes down at periods, &etc.).
- Discuss rate as a reader who reads not too fast or too slow.
- Teach accuracy as a reader who makes little to no errors who reads loudly and clearly and is confident enough in the reading to make eye contact and have good posture and composure.
All of these qualities are included in this rubric, which will help a struggling reader know what is expected as they read aloud, while also helping a teacher grade fluency accurately and efficiently.