In this day and age, teachers can log onto a computer and see information regarding a student, but in my opinion there might be a better way. I used to keep a binder with 7 dividers in it. One divider for each class period. Each divider contained student information sheets that I handed out on the first day of class and expected back the very next day. In fact, that was the students first grade! What an easy way to begin the semester with a 100 as the first grade in the grade book.
The information sheet asked for the student's name, address, and guardian's names. At the start of my teaching career, I had asked for the student's parents names but quickly realized that student's who were living with relatives or guardians were uncomfortable having to explain that or ask what to put instead. So I changed it to "Who do you live with?" I then asked for the home land line phone number, the cellphone number, and the work phone number.
The next information blocks included what locker the student had been assigned and what the combination was. I learned very quickly that if students took Thanksgiving off, when they came back they couldn't remember those items. I also had them write down their schedule for me. Having their schedule allowed me to take something to them later in the day if I needed to or to find them quickly during my conference period.
Each time that I would call home (both good and bad), I took my binder and I would turn that student's information page over and record the date, the time, and the reason for the phone call. One thing I realized is that I had a lot of students who were constantly shuffled between relatives or houses. So every time I realized that the home situation had changed, I made a note on the information sheet. As the phone was ringing, I always reviewed both the front of the information sheet (which told me who they lived with and whether or not it was a stable environment) and the back side of the information sheet (which helped me remember what we talked about the last time).
In January, I gave the student's new information sheets and then replaced the old ones with the new ones.